(No emergencies or surgery- these must go to nearest polyclinic or hospital ER). .
or consultations by Telephone/email where appropriate.
update 16 May 2016. to our health: email@example.com
HIGH TO MASSIVE DOSE VITAMIN D3 IMPORTANCE – TEN TIMES MORE THAN MAXIMUM SUNLIGHT CAN PROVIDE – IN REVERSING COMMON VIT D DEFICIENCY/RESISTANCE FOUND IN ALL MAJOR DISEASE eg ALL INFECTIONS, INSOMNIA, MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS MS, Myasthenia Gravis, SLE, RA, PARKINSON’S, DEPRESSION, VASCULAR DISEASE, CANCER, VITILLIGO, PSORIASIS, PERIPHERAL NEUROPATHIES, MENTAL ILLNESS.
introduction: Cape Town is the world epicenter of epidemics (of poverty – malnutrition- HIV- HAART- TB –Diabetes, asthma-COPD, and vitamin D and iodine deficiency). And we are seeing neuroarthropathy with a vengeance in our township clinics, where a majority of such diabesity or/and HIV patients admit if questioned to chronic burning cramping legs and sore muscles/joints if not also consequent insomnia, falls and leg ulcers.
Poor ill patients seem to accept it- neuroarthropathy- as a way of life since it usually has no visible signs (for anyone to see) till late– poor circulation, ulcers, falls, arthritis- , and malnourished diabesity patients have bigger worries with uncontrolled diabetes and often uncontrolled hypertension despite even insulin; and the HIV+-Tuberculosis patients have the multiple toxic burdens of antiretroviral and antituberculous therapy.
Because the burden of these diseases as well as stress from corruption and violence here is amongst the highest in a major city in the world, affecting especially the poorest and most illiterate labourers, state clinics rarely have budgets to cover the necessary vitamin and mineral supplements the poor also need on their poverty fast food diet.
Our patients accept that in return for life extension by designer antimicrobials and antidiabetic/ antihypertensives, all they will get for pain relief is the combination of physiotherapy, and designer synthetic palliative drugs- paracetamol, ibrufen /diclofenac, tramadol, amitryptiline, and if lucky some ung meth sal . These factory-synthesised drugs give little relief, and no improvement in prognosis since they do not address the proximate causes of the neuroarthropathy, associated depression and work incapacity (and later strokes, arthritis, dementia, ulcers, gangrene, chronic lung/heart/ liver/ kidney/visual disease)- respective causes including stress, infective, drug-induced, tissue glycogenation, the misguided fast-food high carbohydrate-low fat diet obesity; and manual labour/multiple trauma wear and tear, and nutritional deficiency including much-needed marine and saturated fats, vitamins and minerals..
The pioneer work discussed below in Pakistan(Salahuddin ea, Basit ea), Italy (Cipriani ea) and Brazil (Coimbra ea) in using respectively Vit D3 ~700 000iu loading dose and chronically up to 1000iu /kg/day ie average 70 000iu/day, up to 120000iu per day to reverse deadly acute and chronic disease, is comparable in its simplicity safety and low cost to :
*Semmelweis’ revolutionary discovery Vienna in the mid 19thC of hand disinfection to decimate childbirth sepsis deaths; and
*Pauling’s landmark lifesaving escalation of Vit C dose to a gm per kg per day for all severe disease; and
*the parallel discovery in UK and USA of the crucial role of not just the RDA preventative microdose but also the pharmacological anti-disease benefits of 10 to 100times bigger doses of all the vitamins B complex 1 to 12.
Cipriani ea 2010 seems to be the first report on Pubmed of deliberate oral dosing with megadose 600 000iu vit D3 ie 10 000iu/kg, albeit only in health to assess bloodlevel response and safety. Since then, as we previously noted, 2 million unit single overdose in nonagenarians in Netherlands has been shown to do no harm – ie about 40 000iu/kg. .
And as the Australians and others report below, there is no hint of vigorous vitamin or mineral supplements being stigmatized as performance enhancing for eg sport – despite vitamin D3 having the distinction of being truly an anabolic ie performance-enhancing (seco)steroid .
There is no point in giving vitamin D by injection (except in those in ICU on prolonged nil per mouth) since it is so well absorbed provided given with fat eg in fishoil/coconut/DMSO oil. And obviously the higher the dose given, the more important to avoid more than a traditional multisupplement pill a day with low calcium and vitamin A retinol; combined with a low calcium diet (ie low dairy low peanut) ; and supplementing plenty fresh green produce [providing magnesia a few hundred mgs a day, and vitamin K2 perhaps 35mcg/d].
Dr Mike Holick Prof of Medicine at Boston University interviewed by Dr Joe Mercola Dec 2015 details the rationale underpinning the (eg Coimbra) massive vit D3 dose regime for severe immune disease, “as opposed to plenty of sensible sun exposure for general good health and lower deathrate from all diseases and infections. Most melanoma occurs on the least sunexposed skin, with lower melanoma and all other deaths with high sun exposure. Dark days promote melatonin and thus daytime sleepiness and depression- which bright light in the morning for an hour reverses, and elevates b-endorphan, which has many times the painkilling effect of morphines ie opioids, and antidepressants. Vitamin D deficiency more than doubles the risk of all diseases; even 2000iu vit D3 a day in the 1st yr of life in Finland halved the risk of type 1 diabetes– with loss of protection if vit D dose dropped to 400iu/day. Vitamin D/ sunlight reverse leukemic cells. But maximum sunlight exposure nearer the tropics still only elevates 25OHvit D level to a maximum of about 50ng/ml- whereas increasing evidence proves that it may take more than 10 times that bloodlevel to prevent and treat deadly diseases- depending on your genetic vitamin D receptors.
Even 1000iu/d vit D with bld level about 30ng/ml halves risk of many cancers, with doubling benefit as 25OHvit D level is doubled serially eg by 10 000iu/d or 50 000iu/d. The kidneys however limit production of the hypercalcemic 1,25vit D, thus avoiding hypercalcemia provided calcium intake is not supplemented by calcium pills, nuts. vit A etc. The higher the vit D level above 30ng/ml (up to >? 500ng/ml), the more of our 2000 enzyme systems are activated to fight all disease without hypercalcemic risks. Hunter gatherers had levels twice as high as dressed housed people today, around 50ng/ml, with increasing anticancer and antiinfection/antiautoimmune benefit from vit D up to safe levels eg 100ng/ml and higher. .”
At Thisisms.com this is multiple sclerosis March 2016 seems to be the latest from neurologist Dr Cicero Coimbra via grassroots health. He stresses that to cure degenerative/ autoimmune disease eg MS, Parkinson’s, SLE, RA, vitiligo ie to overcome genetic Vit D resistance may require vit D titration up to 1000iu/kg/d ie up to even 40000iu/d to 200000iu/d,
And 25OHvitD blood level to 1000ng and even 4000ng / ml for a few years to produce cure, before reducing to maintenance vit D3 eg 100iu/kg/day ie ~ 50000iu/wk.
Hypercalcemia and thus calcinosis is avoided provided PTH level is maintained in the low normal range, not suppressed. Optimal support includes low calcium and high water diet and Vit B2, magnes selenium zinc phosphor supps.
The spectrum of vitamin D3 adult dose thus extends from the
traditional prevention RDA 10iu/kg/ ie~700iu/d against rickets (infants start with 1000iu/d or 25000iu ie ½ scoop/month of standardized vit D3 100iu/mg powder)
to vigorous 100iu/kg/day (ie 50 000iu scoop /wk ) for common disease prevention/treatment (toddlers 2000iu/d/ ½ scoop/fortnight));
to massive 1000iu/kg/day eg 60 000iu/dy for severe autoimmune/immunodeficiency diseases – with mandatory monitoring of levels of calcium, creatinine, 25OHvitD3 and now PTH levels;
to mega 10 000iu/kg eg 650 000iu as a loading dose for eg TB or meningitis or severe trauma—which dose may maintain 25OHvit D3 blood levels in a “sufficiency” range above ~40ng/ml for a month or two, so obviously requires appropriate maintenance dosing.
Imported vitamin D3 100cwt concentrate powder (100iu/mg) per kg from an importing pharmacist costs about R500/kg ie R0.50/100 000iu- far lower than the cost of the highrisk plant xenocalciferol vitamin D2. Thus to the State (excluding packaging and dispensing cost) , the wholesale cost of vit D3 is about R0.15 per 50 000iu per week for maintenance dose; or for 50 000iu/day R10( US $0.6)/month ie retail abt R60pm ie US$5 for megadose therapy; compared to the quoted retail US$20/month in Brazil. .
THE NEUROPATHY OF DIABETES, DRUGS/TOXINS, POST-VIRAL,TRAUMA, SPONDYLOSIS, DEMENTIA:
Young, Dancho ea Tucson, Arizona, wrote 2012, ” Charcot arthropathy is a devastating joint condition that affects persons with neuropathy. With HIV/AIDS treatments prolonging the lives of these persons, it is likely that long-term sequelae of the disease will become more evident in the near future. Patients with this disease frequently develop peripheral neuropathy. A high index of suspicion must be raised in any patient with peripheral neuropathy of any cause and a red, hot, swollen, painful foot for Charcot neuroarthropathy to give these patients proper treatment to help prevent the devastating effects of Charcot neuropathy with its potential consequences including foot ulceration and amputation. We know only too well the same applies to diabesity, as it did in the days of heavy smoking.”
In 2013 Zubair ea in India showed that diabetics with foot ulcers had vitamin D levels 1/4 of that of matched diabetics without foot ulcers; and “factors which predict the risk of developing ulcer independent of 25(OH)D status were A1c (>6.9%) [OR 4.3), neuropathy [OR 6.9; retinopathy [OR 3.3; nephropathy [OR 3.1) and smoking [OR 4.5]. It is not clear whether the suppression of delayed wound healing seen during 25(OH)D deficiency is a secondary effect or is a direct action of vitamin D on certain components of the immune system.”
Tiwari, Singh, Swain ea at Hindu Universities Uttar Pradesh,India have shown elegantly in
*2012 Tiwari ea Vascular calcification in diabetic foot and its association with calcium homeostasis. Vascular calcification (VC), long thought to result from passive degeneration, involves a complex process of biomineralization, frequently observed in diabetes and an indicator of diabetic peripheral vascular disease.. ..In 74 patients with diabetic foot ulcer, Vascular calcification was present in 42% of patients. Significant difference in vitamin D, HbA1C, and eGFR levels was observed in VC +ve compared to VC -ve. Severe vitamin D deficiency was more common in VC +ve (51%) compared to in VC -ve (18%). Sub-group analysis showed that the risk of VC was significantly higher (RR = 2.4, P < 0.05) in patients with vitamin D < 10 ng/ml compared to others. .and
* Br J Nutr. 2013. Tiwari ea Prevalence and severity of vitamin D deficiency in patients with diabetic foot infection. In Diabetic Patients with and without infection (n289), 25(OH)D (nmol/l) was significantly lower (16) v. 20ng/ml P < 0·001) in cases than in controls. Risk of severe vitamin D deficiency (25(OH)D < 10ng/ml) was significantly higher in cases than in controls (OR 4·0, P < 0·0001). Age, duration of diabetes and HbA1c were significantly higher in cases than in controls and therefore adjusted to nullify the effect of these variables, if any, on study outcome. The study concluded that vitamin D deficiency was more prevalent and severe in patients with diabetic foot infection. ; and the need for vitamin D supplementation in such patients for a better clinical outcome
*.in Br J Nutr.. 2014 Tiwari ea show Vitamin D deficiency is associated with inflammatory cytokine concentrations in patients with diabetic foot infection . Vitamin D is a potent immunomodulator and a common deficiency in different population groups including patients with diabetic foot infection. in 112 diabetic foot infection cases and 109 diabetic controls , cases had significantly higher concentrations of IL-6 (P≤ 0.001), IL-1β and TNF-α (P≤ 0.006) than controls. Risk of severe vitamin D deficiency (25(OH)D <10ng/ml) was significantly higher in cases than in controls (OR 4·0, P < 0·0001). A significant negative correlation was also observed between 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration and circulating concentrations of IL-1β (r -0.323; P≤ 0.001) and IL-6 but not between 25-hydroxyvitamin D and TNF-α and IFN-γ concentrations.
This year 2016 Wukich , Sadoskas ea. University of Pittsburgh & Georgetown USA in Diabetes Metab Res Rev. show that (Charcot) neuroarthropathy (CN) of the ankle and hindfoot is challenging to treat surgically or nonsurgically. Deformities associated with ankle/hindfoot CN are often multiplanar, resulting in malalignment; and shortening of the limb often occurs from collapse of the distal tibia, and ankle, with significant alterations in the biomechanics of the foot. eg predisposing the patient to lateral foot ulceration. Collapse of the talus, secondary to avascular necrosis or neuropathic fracture, further accentuates these deformities and contributes to a limb-length inequality CONCLUSION: Surgical reconstruction of ankle and hindfoot CN is associated with a high rate of infectious and noninfectious complications. Preoperative measures that can improve outcomes include assessment of vascular status, optimization of glycemic control, correction of vitamin D deficiency and cessation of tobacco use.
Now 2016 Basit A, Malik RA5 ea in Universities Karachi Pakistan & Manchester UK , show that A single intramuscular dose of 600 000 IU vitamin D in 143 participants with predominantly type 2 diabetes, aged ~ 52.3years, with high Douleur Neuropathique 4 (DN4) score by 20 weeks gave significant increase in 25(OH)D (from 31.7 to 46.2±10.2 ng/mL, p<0.0001) and significant reduction (p<0.0001) in positive symptoms on the DN4 , and total pain score (p<0.0001, The Basit – Malik Pakistan-Manchester paper showing great efficacy of 600 000iu vit D3 load dose in peripheral neuropathy diabetics matches the huge 40% improvement benefit of similar loading and monthly vit D3 dose against severe PTB shown by Salahuddin ea in Pakistan in 2013 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23331510 that we have previously analyzed in this column
ie apart from smoking; the very low vitamin D levels common in most but especially ill people associate with about 5 fold risks of uncontrolled diabetes, infections, retinopathy , progressive leg ulcers, peripheral neuropathy and arthritis- Charcot arthroneuropathy- -and thus gangrene and amputation; and vigorous safe (supraphysiological) vit D boost reverses the risks. .
And a reminder that a 2015 study in Cape town from Coussens ea Universities in W Cape and Penn State confirm what we see daily in practice, that vitamin D deficiency is endemic in our population
while as we have pointed out repeatedly, the State here continues to dispense the inferior vitamin D2 (as the fraudulently labeled “strong calciferol”, not disclosing that it is ergocalciferol D2) despite this plant xenohormone vit D2 having been rejected by world authorities in favour of the much cheaper and effective human D3 cholecalciferol.
And now 2016 Cadegiani , Brasilia, Brazil another landmark massive-vit D dose report ; Remission of Severe Myasthenia Gravis After Massive-Dose Vitamin D Treatment.. Vitamin D has been shown to be related to autoimmune diseases, such as multiple sclerosis and psoriasis. Correlations have been reported between vitamin D levels and prevalence and severity of other autoimmune disorders, and also between vitamin D therapy and disease improvement and remission. This reports a patient with severe and refractory myasthenia gravis (MG) who followed a massive-dose treatment (80,000 to 120,000 IU/day) promoted by a medical center in Brazil (Coimbra ea) and she had her first complete remission after this type of treatment for at least 18 months (ie at least 50 million iu) with increased vitamin D serum levels (400 to 700 ng/mL) and major fall in her AChR antibodies – but acute relapse when vit D was inadvertently stopped and her vit D level halved; with again recovery when megadose vit D was resumed CONCLUSIONS: This case may reinforce the reported correlation between vitamin D level and disease severity and introduces a possible new use for vitamin D as a potential target for treating autoimmune diseases. We recommend large, double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized studies using high-dose vitamin D treatment for refractory autoimmune diseases to reliably assess this pharmacotherapy target for these diseases.
The above case concurs with previous reported massive dose daily vitamin D3: Finamor , Coimbra ea , Universities of Brazil 2013 A pilot study assessing the effect of prolonged administration of high daily doses of vitamin D on the clinical course of vitiligo and psoriasis. Autoimmunity has been associated with vitamin D deficiency and resistance, with gene polymorphisms related to vitamin D metabolism frequently described. High doses of vitamin D3 may conceivably compensate for inherited resistance to its biological effects. Nine patients with psoriasis and 16 patients with vitiligo received vitamin D3 35,000 IU once daily for six months ie ~7million iu in association with a low-calcium diet (avoiding dairy products and calcium-enriched foods like oat, rice or soya “milk”) and hydration (minimum 2.5 L daily).. After treatment 25(OH)D3 levels significantly increased (from ~15 to 106-132ng/mL. PTH and 25(OH)D3 serum concentrations correlated inversely. The PASI score significantly improved in all nine patients with psoriasis. Fourteen of 16 patients with vitiligo had 25-75% repigmentation. Serum urea, creatinine and calcium (total and ionized) did not change and urinary calcium excretion increased within the normal range. High-dose vitamin D3 therapy may be effective and safe for vitiligo and psoriasis patients.
neurologist Prof Dr Cicero Coimbra from Univ Sao Paulo presents their results since 2002 in over 4000 pts ( 1000 patients each with multiple sclerosis and Parkinson’s diseases), who have been well controlled without other therapies, provided the dose is high enough- 10 000iu/d up to about 1000iu/kg/d eg >70 000iu/d for the obese, on a low calcium ie low dairy/peanuts diet, high fluid intake and high exercise, to normalize blood calcium, and titrate PTH level to the low normal range. Dr Cicero Coimbra discusses high dose vitamin D toxicity: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Vxwk-YPrx7o&feature=youtu.be. PTH level should not be completely suppressed. In their clinic ( of 7 doctors) for Autoimmune chronic diseases incl MS, RA, SLE, psoriasis, vitiligo, type 1 diabetes , they have treated over 4500 pts on this high quality vit D3 high fluid low calcium diet protocol, with only 14 cases of reversible vitamin D toxicosis (hypercalcemia) so far detected ie 0.3%. Babies of mothers thus treated in pregnancy have high psychomotor development. (Vitamin C supplement should not be concurrently excessive to avoid oxalosis). They define success as being disease-free or non-progressive old fixed disabilities- 95% reach full cure. There vit D3 therapy costs only ~US $20/mo, to optimize the immune system against both infections and autoimmune disease let alone cancer. Optimal dose of vit D3 replacement becomes at least 10 000iu/day for adults especially with autoimmune diseases due to common vitamin D resistance. Ideally testing baseline blood and urine at baseline and after a few months on at least 10 000iu/d.
In Effect of a single oral dose of 600,000 IU of cholecalciferol on serum calciotropic hormones in young subjects with vitamin D deficiency:. 2010. Cipriani ,Minisola ea .University of Rome Italy tested 48 young subjects with vitamin D deficiency with a single oral dose of 600,000 IU of cholecalciferol. The 25(OH)D level was ~15.8ng/ml at baseline and became ~77ng/ml at 3 d (P < 0.001) and ~62 ng/ml at 30 d (P < 0.001). The trends were maintained in a subgroup followed up to 90 d (P < 0.001). Mean serum Ca and P significantly increased compared to baseline, whereas serum Mg decreased at 3 d. CONCLUSIONS: A single oral dose of 600,000 IU of cholecalciferol rapidly enhances 25(OH)D and reduces PTH in young people with vitamin D deficiency.
Moderate ie physiological increase in just vitamin D levels and intake (from average diet and sunshine and a traditional supplement) within the average population bloodlevel range understandably has modest benefit- reversing at least rickets- in an indoor living clothed population, even 1st world middleaged: from Wisconsin Univ, Karen Hansen ea’s recent RCT – JAMA 2015- Treatment of Vitamin D Insufficiency in Postmenopausal Women– confirmed this, showing little practical benefit shortterm (ie over 12mo) between placebo, and supplemented vit D3 5600iu/wk and 25000 iu a week, (~3600iu/d); the highest dose perhaps doubling the baseline 20ng/ml 25OH vit D level. ie into the low “adequate” range average around 40ng/ml.
Be aware again that the same university’s group published in 2014 An Evaluation of High-Dose Vitamin D 2 for Rheumatoid Arthritis Karen Hansen ea that vit D2 ~100 00iu/month for a year actually worsens patients and lowers vit D3 levels , so there is no longer excuse for using vitamin D2 supplement when it blocks D3 receptors and lowers blood vit D3.
The inferiority of vit D2 was confirmed in eg Clinical Trial of Vitamin D2 vs D3 Supplementation in Critically Ill Pediatric Burn Patients. Gottschlich, Kagan U Cincinnati Ohio 2015: 50 patients aged 1 to 18yrs with burns were enrolled. All participants received multivitamin supplementation , plus , 100 IU/kg D2, D3, or placebo daily RESULTS: There were no significant differences in serum vitamin D levels between groups, but >10% of patients had low 25OHD at discharge, and %deficiency worsened by the 1-year follow up for the placebo (75%), D2 (56%), and D3 (25%) groups. There were no statistical differences in clinical outcomes between treatment groups, although vitamin D supplementation demonstrated clinically relevant decreases in exogenous insulin requirements, sepsis, and scar formation. The high incidence of low serum 25OHvit D levels 1 year following serious thermal injury indicates prolonged compromise. Continued treatment with vitamin D3 beyond the acute phase postburn is recommended to counteract the trajectory of abnormal serum levels and associated morbidity.
The perception seems to be that up to 40 000iu vit D3 a day, a bld level below abt 150-350ng/ml is safe, ie unsafe above that. The evidence for such ceiling ie higher dose harm in fact is lacking since as we have previously discussed here, healthy people have taken up to 150 000iu a day for decades without evidence of harm… provided they took adequate fluids, and did not take supplements of calcium, or also take high vitamin A which notoriously causes acute hypercalcemic toxicity, or have rising calcium levels . .
But note that vit K2 improves absorption of vit D3 CHOLECALCIFEROL , and vit K2 and magnesia improve benefit of vit D3,while protecting against overdose effects ie calcification, stones and confusion. Problem in many toxicity reports is that they used either vit D2 ergocalcif (WHICH BLOCKS THE NEEDED D3) , or used accidental massive overdose (millions of units vit D ) daily for months- or massive INJECTIONS) or combined vit D WITH CALCIUM REPLACEMENT AND/ OR EXCESSIVE VITAMIN A – which combinations are dangerous; we need magnesium (not calcium or high vitamin A supplements).
SO I continue to take vit D3 ~70 000iu/wk ie ~10 000iu/d, with vit K2 supp ~700mcg a wk ie 100mcg/dy and a balanced multisupplement incl. magnesia in addition to a multisupplement A-Z, and fish oil and Lugols iodine 15% 2 drops a day; with if I do get a “flu” attack during bad weather, prompt abolition by a few antibiotic doses of topup Lugols iodine 15% a few tsp (ie ~1000mgs iodine), and vitamin D3 eg 300 000iu, and vitamin C a few tsp orally and by sniffing. .
The problem with many adverse effect reports of vit D3 overdose eg the Dominican Republic Soladek 2011 report Lowe ea below, and Prof Heaney’s response, is that they failed to even consider the massive associated overdose of the far more hypercalcemic vitamin A let alone calcium supp reported by most patients. It becomes apparent that NO calcium supplement should be encouraged on a prudent diet; but instead supplements of Vit D3, magnesia, vits K2 and C, CoQ10, and fish oil ; in addition to a balanced (A to Z) RDA-based multisupplement for seniors like eg Solal’s, Vital’s Multitime, Centrum etc.. with a low calcium diet if massive dose vitamin D3 is indicated as in autoimmune diseases (Coimbra ea).
the Australian Govt Supplement Overview has an intriguing report on vit D in sports, with no hint of vit D supplement being a steroid abuse. .http://www.ausport.gov.au/data/assets/pdf_file/0003/594174/CORP_33413_SSF_Vitamin_D_FS.pdf Vitamin D is classified as a fat soluble vitamin which acts functionally as a steroid hormones. There are 2 different isoforms of Vitamin D: D3 (cholecalciferol) which is the important isomer formed in human skin and D2 (ergocalciferol) which is the plant-derived ie xeno-equivalent. D2 was the first isoform to be characterised and was first used in Vitamin D supplements and for food fortification. D3 is now considered preferable. D3 is biologically inert until converted in the liver to 25(OH)D and to 1,25(OH)D in the kidney. Vitamin D plays an important role in calcium and phosphorous homeostasis (bone health),but more so in gene expression and cell growth. The recent recognition of Vitamin D receptors in most body tissues indicates a role for Vitamin D in many aspects of health and function. Vitamin D is now known to be important for optimal muscle function.
The principal source of circulating vitamin D comes from exposure to ultraviolet B (UVB) radiation from sunlight. In 2010, the Institute of Medicine issued new Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin D, assuming no sunlight exposure: this included a Recommended Dietary Intake of 600 IU/d and an Upper Level intake of 4000 IU/d (www.iom.edu/vitamind). BUT no evidence has ever been published to support this ceiling intake.
Whereas Vitamin D deficiency can lead to several health issues including increased risk of bone injuries, chronic musculoskeletal pain and viral respiratory tract infections. There is also emerging evidence that supplementing Vitamin D in athletes with sub-optimal Vitamin D levels may have beneficial effects on athletic performance in particular strength, power, reaction time and balance.
There is no universally accepted definition of vitamin D deficiency however, the following definitions based on serum levels of 25(OH) Vitamin D are often cited:
Vitamin D deficiency: serum levels < 20 ng/ml (50 nmol/L); Vit D insufficiency: serum levels < 30 ng/ml
Vit D sufficiency: serum levels > 30 ng/ml Ideal Vit D range*: 30-50ng/ml
Toxicity: > 150ng/ml, when combined with raised serum calcium
(*Higher status may be preferred for athletes to allow a greater safety margin and to optimize performance; some agencies working with elite athletes often set their own thresholds for desired Vitamin D concentrations)
Ie they quote no evidence for the 25OH vit D ceiling of 50ng/ml.
Owens DJ1, Close GL ea . UK Universities . 2015..A systems-based investigation into vitamin D and skeletal muscle repair, regeneration, and hypertrophy. Skeletal muscle is a direct target for vitamin D. Observational studies suggest that low 25[OH]D correlates with functional recovery of skeletal muscle following eccentric contractions in humans and crush injury in rats. However, a definitive association is yet to be established. To address this gap in knowledge in relation to damage repair, a randomised, placebo-controlled trial was performed in 20 males with insufficient concentrations of serum 25(OH)D (~18ng/ml). Prior to and following 6 wk of supplemental vitamin D3 (4,000 IU/day) or placebo (50 mg of cellulose), participants performed 20 × 10 damaging eccentric contractions of the knee extensors. Supplemental vitamin D3 increased serum 25(OH)D and improved recovery of peak torque at 48 h and 7 days postexercise. Together, these preliminary data are the first to characterize a role for vitamin D in human skeletal muscle regeneration and suggest that maintaining serum 25(OH)D may be beneficial for enhancing reparative processes and potentially for facilitating subsequent hypertrophy.
2016 Is there an optimal vitamin D status for immunity in athletes and military personnel? He CS1, Gleeson M ea .Vitamin D is mainly obtained through sunlight ultraviolet-B (UVB) exposure of the skin, with a small amount typically coming from the diet.It is now clear that vitamin D has important roles beyond its well-known effects on calcium and bone homeostasis. Immune cells express the vitamin D receptor, including antigen presenting cells, T cells and B cells, and these cells are all capable of synthesizing the biologically active vitamin D metabolite, 1, 25 hydroxy vitamin D.There has been growing interest in the benefits of supplementing vitamin D as studies report vitamin D insufficiency (circulating 25(OH)D < 50 nmol/L) in more than half of all athletes and military personnel tested during the winter, when skin sunlight UVB is negligible. The overwhelming evidence supports avoiding vitamin D deficiency (25(OH)D< 30 nmol/L)to maintain immunity and prevent upper respiratory illness (URI) in athletes and military personnel.Recent evidence supports an optimal circulating 25(OH)D of 75 nmol/L to prevent URI and enhance innate immunity and mucosal immunity and bring about anti-inflammatory actions through the induction of regulatory T cells and the inhibition of pro-inflammatory cytokine production. We provide practical recommendations for how vitamin D sufficiency can be achieved in most individuals by safe sunlight exposure in the summer and daily 1, 000 IU vitamin D3 supplementation in the winter.
Sarris J1, Ng CH1. Ea, Universities of Melbourne, & Deakin, Australia; & Harvard Boston; 2016 show in Adjunctive Nutraceuticals for Depression: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analyses. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27113121 Adjunctive standardized pharmaceutical-grade nutrients, known as nutraceuticals, has the potential to modulate several neurochemical pathways implicated in depression. A systematic search up to 2015 for clinical trials using adjunctive nutrients for depression RESULTS: Primarily positive results were found for studies testing S-adenosylmethionine (SAMe), methylfolate, omega-3 (primarily EPA or ethyl-EPA), and vitamin D,. Mixed results were found for zinc, folic acid, vitamin C, and tryptophan. . No major adverse effects were noted in the studies adjunctive omega-3 versus placebo revealed a significant and moderate to strong effect in favor of omega-3. CONCLUSIONS: Current evidence supports adjunctive use of SAMe, methylfolate, omega-3, and vitamin D with antidepressants to reduce depressive symptoms.
Raina AH1, Bhat FA1 ea ., India.. 2016 Association of Low Levels of Vitamin D with Chronic Stable Angina: A Prospective Case-Control Study. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27114971 Coronary artery disease (CAD) is a major cause of death and disability in developed countries. Chronic stable angina is the initial manifestation of CAD in approximately 50% of the patients. Recent evidence suggests that vitamin D is crucial for cardiovascular health. The prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in our region is 83%. METHODS: a prospective case-control study in 100 cases of chronic stable angina compared controls. Vitamin D deficiency was defined as <20 ng/mL, vitamin D insufficiency as 20-30 ng/mL and normal vitamin D level as 31-150 ng/mL.RESULTS: The prevalence of vitamin D deficiency among cases and controls was 75% and 10%, respectively. 13% had normal vitamin D levels (31-150 ng/mL). None had a toxic level of vitamin D. Among the controls, 10% were vitamin D-deficient, 57% had normal vitamin D levels. The mean vitamin level among cases and controls was 15.53 ng/mL and 40.95 ng/mL, respectively, statistically significant (P ≤ 0.0001). Among the cases, we found that an increasing age was inversely related to vitamin D levels (P = 0.027). Low levels may be an independent, potentially modifiable cardiovascular risk factor.
Jetty , Glueck Kumar ea . Jewish Hospital Cincinnati, Ohio, USA 2016 show 12mo Safety of 50,000-100,000 Units of Vitamin D3/Week in Hypercholesterolemic Vitamin D-Deficient, Patients with Reversible Statin Intolerance. : http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27114973 Such Vitamin D3 therapy (was safe and effective when given for 12 months to reverse statin intolerance in patients with vitamin D deficiency. Serum vitamin D rarely exceeded 100 ng/mL, never reached toxic levels, and there were no significant change in serum calcium or eGFR
https://riordanclinic.org/2013/10/vitamins-d3-and-k2-the-dynamic-duo/ As we explore the healing power of higher doses of vitamin D3 at the Riordan Clinic, we have found it prudent to partner the safety and effectiveness of this dynamic duo. For every 5,000–10,000 units of D3 being recommended and tested for, we are recommending 100 mcg of K2 mk7 to be sure and prevent the inappropriate calcification that higher doses of D3 alone could cause.
Newsletter: Gary Null and vitamin D toxicity 2010 by John Cannell, MD http://www.vitamindcouncil.org/newsletter/newsletter-gary-null-and-vitamin-d-toxicity/ “Warning: If you intend to take massive doses of vitamin D based on this newsletter, which I highly recommend you do not, read the entire newsletter. In addition, accurate determination of side effects of massive doses of vitamin D was not available in the early 1930s, nor was accurate determination of the true amount in each pill possible. Is 2,000,000 IU/day of vitamin D toxic? Ask Gary Null, alternative medicine guru and entrepreneur. He took his own supplement, Ultimate Power Meal, for a month and became extremely ill; one batch of Power Meal apparently contained 1,000 times more vitamin D than it should. That is, it contained 2,000,000 IU of vitamin D3 per serving instead of 2,000 IU per serving. Mr. Null became sicker and sicker as he gulped it down.
After suing his own supplier for permanent physical damage, Mr. Null then reported it took 3 months to get the extra vitamin D out of his system and that he is now alive and well. If Mr. Null took it for the full month that he claims, and if his Power Meal contained 2,000,000 IU per dose, Mr. Null consumed 60,000,000 IU in one month. Could he really be fine now with no lasting injuries? In an attempt to answer that question, I went back to the 1930s and 40s. Massive doses in the 1930s The earliest references I could find to enormous doses of vitamin D were in the 1930s. In 1935, Drs. Dreyer and Reed, of the University of Illinois School of Medicine, published their observations on 700 patients treated with “massive” doses of vitamin D for up to two years.1 ….” read on..http://www.vitamindcouncil.org/newsletter/newsletter-gary-null-and-vitamin-d-toxicity/ http://www.livescience.com/50765-vitamin-d-supplements-toxicity.html
Vitamin D Overdose Dr. Liji Thomas, MD 2016 http://www.news-medical.net/health/Vitamin-D-Overdose.aspx vitamin D toxicity can occur from high intakes of supplements containing vitamin D, but not from dietary intake. Prolonged sun exposure also does not result in vitamin D toxicity because the previtamin D3 is degraded as the skin heats up, and also because of the formation of various other non-functional forms of vitamin D from the thermally activated compound. Long term intakes of vitamin D above the upper limit recommended causes symptoms of toxicity. However, the intakes must be higher than about 40,000 IU/day, or the serum level of 25-hydroxy above 500-600 ng/mL, and the patient is usually also taking excessive amounts of calcium as well.
Dietary Supplement–Induced Vitamin D Intoxication Klontz KC, Acheson DW. To the Editor 2004: Vitamin D intoxication that is associated with the consumption of dietary supplements is reported rarely. In 2004, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) learned of the following case. A 58-year-old woman with diabetes mellitus and rheumatoid arthritis began taking a dietary supplement called Solutions IE Ageless Formula II on January 12, 2004. Fatigue, constipation, back pain, forgetfulness, nausea, and vomiting soon developed. On March 15, 2004, she was hospitalized because her speech was slurred, and a blood glucose reading taken at home was 30 mg per deciliter. On admission, her serum levels were as follows: calcium, more than 3.75 mmol per liter; 25-hydroxyvitamin D, 460ng/ml (normal range, 9-5);; parathyroid hormone, 12 ng per liter (normal range, 10 to 65); and creatinine, 265 μmol per liter. The patient was treated with intravenous normal saline, furosemide, and pamidronate. On March 19, 2004, while still hospitalized, she was informed by the product distributor of an error in product formulation such that 188,640 IU of vitamin D3/d had been added to the daily serving size of six capsules instead of the intended 400 IU. IE SHE HAD TAKEN ~12.2MILLION IU OF VIT D3 IN 2 MONTHS. At discharge on March 24, the patient’s serum levels were as follows: calcium, 2.60 mmol per liter; blood urea nitrogen, 10.0 mmol per liter; and creatinine, 221 μmol per liter. The patient died from a cause unknown to us on January 8, 2005. Laboratory analysis of the product by the FDA, obtained from one of two lots reportedly overfortified with vitamin D3, revealed 186,906 IU of vitamin D3 in each serving size of six capsules, indicating that the patient had consumed roughly 90 times the recommended safe upper limit of 2000 IU per day. Long-term daily vitamin D consumption of more than 40,000 IU (1000 μg) is needed to cause hypercalcemia in healthy persons.2 In March 2004, the product distributor announced that during the previous month it had received three complaints from customers who had been hospitalized for hypercalcemia and vitamin D toxicity
2011 Vitamin D toxicity due to a commonly available “over the counter” remedy from the Dominican Republic. Lowe H1, Bilezikian JP. ea Columbia Univ, NY.. http://press.endocrine.org/doi/10.1210/jc.2010-1999?url_ver=Z39.88-2003&rfr_id=ori%3Arid%3Acrossref.org&rfr_dat=cr_pub%3Dpubmed& Hypercalcemia in ambulatory patients is occasionally caused by vitamin D toxicity. We report nine patients presenting to Columbia University Medical Center with hypercalcemia due to a supplement from the Dominican Republic containing massive amounts of vitamin D. All reported recently taking Soladek readily available in the Dominican Republic and in Upper Manhattan. serum calcium values before the ingestion of Soladek were not elevated According to the manufacturer’s label, each 5-ml vial of Soladek contains vitamin D3 (600,000 IU), vitamin A (120,000 IU), and vitamin E (5 mg). Laboratory analysis by HPLC revealed that the supplement actually contained vitamin D(3) (864,000 IU) and vitamin A (predominantly retinyl palmitate 123,500 IU) per vial.IE 864000 IU VIT D /day FOR UNKNOWN DURATION. a similar case was reported earlier http://www.thecamreport.com/2009/11/soladek-toxicity-in-a-60-year-old-woman/
Comments by Prof Robert P. Heany Creighton University, Omaha, Nebraska on Lowe et al: Hypercalcemia in vitamin D intoxication JCEM http://press.endocrine.org/e-letters/10.1210/jc.2010-1999 The report by Lowe et al. on vitamin D intoxication from an OTC supplement (1) is instructive and useful. I comment on the authors’ suggested mechanism of hypercalcemia in such cases. The authors propose that the elevated concentration of serum 25- hydroxy-vitamin D [25(OH)D] is the responsible agent, through loose binding to the vitamin D receptor. While my colleagues and I have shown that 25(OH)D can improve calcium absorption (2), I believe there is a simpler explanation for hypercalcemia in vitamin D intoxication, particularly as the reported values of 25(OH)D were not uniformly high in these nine cases. [In fact the patient with the highest serum calcium had actually the lowest value for 25(OH)D.] Instead, as Vieth suggested several years ago in a paper actually referenced by Lowe et al. (3), elevation of free circulating 1,25(OH)2D (calcitriol) is the most parsimonious explanation. This level is not commonly measured, and was not reported in the cases described by Lowe et al. Vieth has estimated the binding capacity of the D-binding protein (DBP) at approximately 4700 nmol/liter, and it is generally recognized that fewer than 5% of its binding sites are occupied at typical cholecalciferol inputs. However, in the face of huge cholecalciferol doses, as in the nine cases described here, it can easily be calculated that most or all of the binding sites on the DBP would be occupied by cholecalciferol itself as well as by 25(OH)D and 24,25(OH)2D, all of which are bound to the DBP more avidly than is calcitriol. Lowe et al. did not measure serum cholecalciferol, but it is virtually certain that its concentration would have been elevated, if for no other reason than that the capacity of the hepatic 25-hydroxylase is limited, and serum cholecalciferol concentration rises steeply for cholecalciferol inputs in excess of the saturation level of the 25-hydroxylase [which typically occurs at serum cholecalciferol levels of about 10 nmol/L and serum 25(OH)D of about 80 nmol/liter (4)].Even if all of the binding sites of the DBP were not continuously occupied by less polar metabolites, high occupancy would shift the equilibrium between the free and the bound calcitriol, so that free calcitriol concentration would likely have been substantially above normal values continuously. The authors speculate as to the origin of the elevated total calcitriol concentrations, given the down-regulation of the renal 1-Ã¡- hydroxylase in such cases.
2016.Deficient serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D is associated with an atherogenic lipid profile: The Very Large Database of Lipids (VLDL-3) study. Lupton JR1Michos ea . Cross-sectional studies have found an association between deficiencies in serum vitamin D, as measured by 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D), and an atherogenic lipid profile. These studies have focused on a limited panel of lipid values including low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and triglycerides (TG).OBJECTIVE: Our study examines the relationship between serum 25(OH)D and an extended lipid panel (Vertical Auto Profile) while controlling for age, gender, glycemic status, and kidney function.METHODS: We used the Very Large Database of Lipids, which includes US adults clinically referred for analysis of their lipid profile from 2009 to 2011. Our study focused on 20,360 subjects who had data for lipids, 25(OH)D, age, gender, hemoglobin A1c, insulin, creatinine, and blood urea nitrogen. Subjects were split into groups based on serum 25(OH)D: deficient (<20 ng/mL), intermediate (≥20-30 ng/mL), and optimal (≥30 ng/mL). The deficient group was compared to the optimal group using multivariable linear regression.RESULTS: In multivariable-adjusted linear regression, deficient serum 25(OH)D was associated with significantly lower serum HDL-C (-5.1%) and higher total cholesterol (+9.4%), non-HDL-C (+15.4%), directly measured LDL-C (+13.5%), intermediate-density lipoprotein cholesterol (+23.7%), very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (+19.0%), remnant lipoprotein cholesterol (+18.4%), and TG (+26.4%) when compared with the optimal group.CONCLUSION: Deficient serum 25(OH)D is associated with significantly lower HDL-C and higher directly measured LDL-C, intermediate-density lipoprotein cholesterol, very low-density lipoproteins cholesterol, remnant lipoprotein cholesterol, and TG
Vitam Horm. 2016;100:255-71. doi: 10.1016/bs.vh.2015.10.001. Epub 2015 Nov 30. Molecular Approaches for Optimizing Vitamin D Supplementation. Carlberg C1.Vitamin D can be synthesized endogenously within UV-B exposed human skin. However, avoidance of sufficient sun exposure via predominant indoor activities, textile coverage, dark skin at higher latitude, and seasonal variations makes the intake of vitamin D fortified food or direct vitamin D supplementation necessary. Vitamin D has via its biologically most active metabolite 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D and the transcription factor vitamin D receptor a direct effect on the epigenome and transcriptome of many human tissues and cell types. Different interpretation of results from observational studies with vitamin D led to some dispute in the field on the desired optimal vitamin D level and the recommended daily supplementation. This chapter will provide background on the epigenome- and transcriptome-wide functions of vitamin D and will outline how this insight may be used for determining of the optimal vitamin D status of human individuals. These reflections will lead to the concept of a personal vitamin D index that may be a better guideline for an optimized vitamin D supplementation than population-based recommendations.
the Ides of March 2016: Where have we been the past 5 years in ignoring the crucial role of K2 supplement with vit D3? against cancer, fractures, infections, vascular disease and diabetes ,
like the crucial role of Lugols iodine + selenium, and magnesium (not calcium), coQ10, and animal, marine and coconut ie saturated fat oil- supplement for all chronic disease prevention?
Considering that our western processed food staple diet, and the diet of the poor majority everywhere, is increasingly deficient especially in these nutrients, with by profit-motivated industrial design disease-promoting cholesterol-depletion, refined sugars, transfats, antibiotics, hormones, and noxious at-any-dose elements from fluorine and aluminium upwards.…
I see I was promoting K2 in my emails 4 years ago, and since 2009, on my Healthspanlife blog ie in my lectures and thus in my healthspanlife blends .
Unlike the Big Pharma-Disease-Industry- controlled denialists of conservative safe natural phamacological vitamin therapy like the Linus Pauling Institute and Wikipedia https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vitamin_K2,
the vitamin K2 Polish scientist Dr Katarzyna Maresz PhD 2015 writes (see abstract below) Proper Calcium Use: Vitamin K2 as a Promoter of Bone and Cardiovascular Health. Maresz K1. International Science and Health Foundation Krakow, Poland Inadequate calcium intake can lead to decreased bone mineral density, thus increase the risk of bone fractures. Recent scientific evidence, however, suggests that elevated consumption of calcium supplements may raise the risk for heart disease and can be connected with accelerated deposit of calcium in blood-vessel walls and soft tissues. In contrast, vitamin K2 is associated with the inhibition of arterial calcification and arterial stiffening. Dosing of K2 was supported by a population-based study with 16 000 healthy women aged 49 to 70 years drawn from EPIC’s cohort population. After 8 years ,it showed that a high intake of natural vitamin K2 (ie, not synthetic K2, but not of vitamin K1) was associated with protection against cardiovascular events. For every 10 mcg of dietary vitamin K2 consumed (in the forms of menaquinone 7 (MK-7), menaquinone 8 (MK-8), and menaquinone 9 (MK-9), the risk of coronary heart disease was reduced by 9%. … The researchers found that a daily dose of 180 mcg was enough to improve bone mineral density, bone strength, and cardiovascular health. They also showed that achieving a clinically relevant improvement required at least 2 years of supplementation.
While vit D3 cholecalciferol soltriol was the multiprevention megavitamin of the past decade, and CoQ10 the decade before that, catching up with the protean benefits of increasingly diet- deficient vitamins published (350 000 Pubmed citations) the past century, and of vitamin K since 1936, and K2 since 1946,
vit K2 is the most publicized ie advancing megavit of the current decade:
Adequate intake ie ~45 to ~150mcg/d is crucial with magnesium, boron etc to balance vigorous vit D3 supplement,
for both bone, immune/cancer, and cardiovascular health.
Thus even just ~55mcg/d K2 supplement HALVES the risk of cardiovascular disease – very important in overweight/stressed/ aging people.
BUT The authorities quoted have assessed safety and optimal longterm effective doses of vitamin K3 and vitamin D3 IN ISOLATION for major prevention. However, we know that optimal nutrition is balanced nutrition, not one or two nutrient is superdose with an average fastfood mediocre diet.
This finally convinces me to add vit K2 ~ 35 to 100mcg/day ie 200 to 700mcg/wk to my own vit D3 supplements. at a trivial bulk wholesale cost of ~10mg/d 1% K2 ie ~R0.1/day or R14 – ( US$1) bag per 40 weeks of vit D3 @ 50 000iu vit D3 twice a month.
Like Mercola 2010 http://articles.mercola.com/sites/articles/archive/2010/08/26/this-could-be-even-bigger-than-the-vitamin-d-discovery.aspx, Byron Richards already in 2010 wrote a major review promoting K2 multipurpose: http://www.wellnessresources.com/health/articles/vitamin_k2_bones_cardiovascular_health_blood_sugar_control_cancer_prev/
As a recent BBC review details, “Vitamin K1 has a relatively short half-life and is rapidly cleared from the blood by the liver within eight hours. In comparison vitamin K2 has a longer half-life of up to 72 hours, meaning it remains biologically active in the body for longer. Vitamin K2 is also absorbed better by the body, and is linked to cardiovascular health. It directs calcium to the bones, and prevents it from being deposited where it shouldn’t be, for example arteries and organs, where it can cause harm.
The Kansas Riordan Clinic promotes the Superhuman Duo of D3+K: they point out that ” Because an accurate LD50 for vit D in humans has never been determined (thank God!) most researchers use the LD50 for dogs as an estimate for humans, using a hypothetical human subject weighing 50kg, 110 pounds: in order to reach the LD50 dose, that subject would need to consume over 3,500 of the 50,000 IU D3 caps in a 24 hour period (146 capsules an hour, total 175million iu) in order to have a 50% chance of dying. By conscientiously using vitamin K2 in conjunction with D3, this issue of “metastatic calcium” is thoroughly avoided. Finally, like vitamin D3, strong evidence demonstrates vitamin K’s amazing ability to reduce cancer risk. For example, men taking vitamin K2 mk7 (a naturally occurring long acting form of K2) at 45 mcg a day can statistically reduce their risk of prostate cancer by 60%! That is just one of many cancer risks that are reduced significantly by regular K2 ingestion. As we explore the healing power of higher doses of vitamin D3 at the Riordan Clinic, we have found it prudent to partner the safety and effectiveness of this dynamic duo. For every 5,000–10,000 units of D3 being recommended and tested for, we are recommending 100 mcg of K2 mk7 to be sure and prevent the inappropriate calcification that higher doses of D3 alone could cause.
For the safety of vigorous dose of vitamin D3, the masses of D3 evidence we assembled by August 2015 is that 2million units as a single oral dose does no harm to nonagenarians, nor has over 100 000iu a day for 28 years ie over a billion iu in middle-aged women.
In 2015, Like *Joe Leech and *Hogne Vik , *Angela Pifer nutritionist notes the essensiality of balancing vit D3 with K2 “Vitamin D3 should never be taken alone. Always take a combination Vitamin D3/ Vitamin K2 liquid emulsion, at night for best absorption. This is because vitamin D3 improves calcium absorption across the GI tract and vitamin K2 is the cofactor needed to transfer calcium into your bones, and not your arteries. (Eur J Clin Nutr. 2016 Feb 24. doi: 10.1038/ejcn.2016.3. Steady-state vitamin K2 (menaquinone-7) plasma concentrations after intake of dairy products and soft gel capsules. Knapen, Vermeer ea . Maastricht University, Netherlands. In a previous human intervention study, we observed an improved vitamin K status after 8 weeks of intake of a yogurt fortified with vitamin K2 (as menaquinone-7, MK-7) and vitamins C and D3, magnesium and polyunsaturated fatty acids. It was hypothesized that the added nutrients contributed to this improvement. Here we report on a study in which we compared the fasting plasma concentrations of MK-7 from (a) yogurt enriched with MK-7, vitamins D3 and C, magnesium, n-3 poly unsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) and fish oil (yogurt Kplus), (b) yogurt fortified with MK-7 only (yogurt K) and (c) soft gel capsules containing only MK-7, For 42 days in healthy men and postmenopausal women between 45 and 65 years of age daily consumed either yogurt K, yogurt Kplus or capsules. RESULTS: The increase in plasma MK-7 with the yogurt Kplus product was more pronounced than the increase in MK-7 with the capsules, reflecting vitamin K status improvement. No significant differences in fasting plasma concentrations of various biomarkers between the yogurts were found. CONCLUSIONS: Dairy matrix and nutrient composition may affect MK-7 delivery and improvement of vitamin K status. Yogurt fortified with MK-7 is a suitable matrix to improve the nutritional status of the fat-soluble vitamins.)
Some recent of the other 5000 K2 refs on Pubmed, apart from the abundant reviews by Garry Gordon, Joe Mercola, Mike Howard, Jeff Dach, Townsend letter, ea , are
Integr Med (Encinitas). 2015;14; 34-9. Proper Calcium Use: Vitamin K2 as a Promoter of Bone and Cardiovascular Health. Maresz K1. International Science and Health Foundation Krakow, Poland Inadequate calcium intake can lead to decreased bone mineral density, thus increase the risk of bone fractures. Supplemental calcium promotes bone mineral density and strength and can prevent osteoporosis. Recent scientific evidence, however, suggests that elevated consumption of calcium supplements may raise the risk for heart disease and can be connected with accelerated deposit of calcium in blood-vessel walls and soft tissues. In contrast, vitamin K2 is associated with the inhibition of arterial calcification and arterial stiffening. An adequate intake of vitamin K2 has been shown to lower the risk of vascular damage because it activates matrix GLA protein (MGP), which inhibits the deposits of calcium on the walls. Vitamin K, particularly as vitamin K2, is nearly nonexistent in junk food, with little being consumed even in a healthy Western diet. Vitamin K deficiency results in inadequate activation of MGP, which greatly impairs the process of calcium removal and increases the risk of calcification of the blood vessels. An increased intake of vitamin K2 could be a means of lowering calcium-associated health risks. “ Calcium Concerns: If at least 32 mcg/d of vitamin K2 is present in the diet, then the risks for blood-vessel calcification and heart problems are significantly lowered, the elasticity of the vessel wall is increased. Moreover, the beneficial effects of vitamins D and K on the elastic properties of the vessel wall in postmenopausal women has been seen in clinical trials. If less vitamin K2 is present in the diet, then cardiovascular problems may arise. Dosing of K2 was supported by a population-based study with 16 000 healthy women aged 49 to 70 years drawn from EPIC’s cohort population. After 8 years ,it showed that a high intake of natural vitamin K2 (ie, not synthetic K2, but not of vitamin K1) was associated with protection against cardiovascular events. For every 10 mcg of dietary vitamin K2 consumed (in the forms of menaquinone 7 (MK-7), menaquinone 8 (MK-8), and menaquinone 9 (MK-9), the risk of coronary heart disease was reduced by 9%. A study on 564 postmenopausal women also revealed that intake of vitamin K2 was associated with decreased coronary calcification, whereas intake of vitamin K1 was not. ” A recent, double-blind, randomized clinical trial investigated the effects of supplemental MK-7, MenaQ7 (NattoPharma ASA, Hovik, Norway) for a 3-year period in a group of 244 postmenopausal Dutch women. The researchers found that a daily dose of 180 mcg was enough to improve bone mineral density, bone strength, and cardiovascular health. They also showed that achieving a clinically relevant improvement required at least 2 years of supplementation.It showed a significant improvement in cardiovascular health as measured by ultrasound and pulse-wave velocity, which are recognized as standard measurements for cardiovascular health. In that trial, carotid artery distensibility was significantly improved for a 3-year period as compared with that of a placebo group. Also, pulse-wave velocity showed a statistically significantly decrease after 3 years for the vitamin K2 (MK-7) group, but not for the placebo group, demonstrating an increase in the elasticity and reduction in age-related arterial stiffening.”
* Nutrients. 2015 Oct ;7;8905-15. Menaquinone-7 Supplementation to Reduce Vascular Calcification in Patients with Coronary Artery Disease: Rationale and Study Protocol (VitaK-CAC Trial).Vossen, Kroon ea Coronary artery calcification (CAC) develops early in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis and is a strong and independent predictor of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Arterial calcification is caused by an imbalance in calcification regulatory mechanisms. An important inhibitor of calcification is vitamin K-dependent matrix Gla protein (MGP). Both preclinical and clinical studies have shown that inhibition of the vitamin K-cycle by vitamin K antagonists (VKA) results in elevated uncarboxylated MGP (ucMGP) and subsequently in extensive arterial calcification. This led us to hypothesize that vitamin K supplementation may slow down the progression of calcification. To test this, we designed the VitaK-CAC trial which analyses effects of menaquinone-7 (MK-7) supplementation on progression of CAC. The trial is a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial including patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). Patients with a baseline Agatston CAC-score between 50 and 400 will be randomized to an intervention-group (360 microgram MK-7) or a placebo group. Treatment duration will be 24 months. We hypothesize that treatment with MK-7 will slow down or arrest the progression of CAC and that this trial may lead to a treatment option for vascular calcification and subsequent CVD.
* Ugeskr Laeger. 2015 Aug;177:V12140700. Vitamin K2 influences several diseases]. Hey H1, Brasen CL. Lillebælt, Kabbeltoft, In this paper we discuss the evidence of vitamin K2 deficiency which is a factor in several chronic diseases like diabetes, osteoporosis, cancer, inflammatory and cardiovascular diseases. This deficiency is very common in the mentioned diseases although it is rarely treated by clinicians. Randomized clinical trials have shown that patients witr can benefit from vitamin K2 supplement. Further studies are needed to ascertain the effect of vitamin K2 supplement in patients with diabetes and inflammatory bowel diseases.
* Oman Med J. 2014;29;172-7. Vitamin k dependent proteins and the role of vitamin k2 in the modulation of vascular calcification: a review. El Asmar, Arbid ea, American University of Beirut, Lebanon. Vascular calcification, a cause of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, is an actively regulated process involving vitamin K dependent proteins (VKDPs) among others. Vitamin K is an essential micronutrient, present in plants and animal fermented products that plays an important role as a cofactor for the post-translational γ-carboxylation of glutamic acid residues in a number of proteins. These VKDPs require carboxylation to become biologically active, and they have been identified as having an active role in vascular cell migration, angiogenesis and vascular calcification. calcification.
* Dermatoendocrinol. 2015 Jan;6e968490. Vitamin K: an old vitamin in a new perspective. Gröber U, Reichrath J, Holick MF, Kisters Essen, Germany.& Boston, MA USA. The topic of “Vitamin K” is currently booming on the health products market. Current research increasingly indicates that the antihaemorrhagic vitamin has a considerable benefit in the prevention and treatment of bone and vascular disease. Vitamin K1 (phylloquinone) is more abundant in foods but less bioactive than the vitamin K2 menaquinones (especially MK-7, menaquinone-7). Vitamin K compounds undergo oxidation-reduction cycling within the endoplasmic reticulum membrane, donating electrons to activate specific proteins via enzymatic gamma-carboxylation of glutamate groups before being enzymatically reduced. Along with coagulation factors (II, VII, IX, X, and prothrombin), protein C and protein S, osteocalcin (OC), matrix Gla protein (MGP), periostin, Gas6, and other vitamin K-dependent (VKD) proteins support calcium homeostasis, inhibit vessel wall calcification, support endothelial integrity, facilitate bone mineralization, are involved in tissue renewal and cell growth control, and have numerous other effects.
CAPE PENINSULA HYPERTENSION & HEADACHE CENTRE (50 years of experience) at The Natural Medicine Clinic NMC , 1st Floor, 15 Grove Bldg, Grove Claremont, Cape Town- between ABSA Parkade on Grove Ave, and Warwick Sq opp Cavendish. ph 0216831465/ 071202574 or email firstname.lastname@example.org.
As the commonest silent killer of aging people in the world, pain, obesity and often-resultant systemic hypertension HBP deserve the best and cheapest treatment. Headache is rarely caused by hypertension, but unlike hypertension, is usually easily controlled if not cured.
But precisely because HBP is so common- in half of us by old age, especially at night- it is a huge moneyspinner for Big Pharma and the Disease Industry.
so the last thing the HBP Industry wants is too successful too cheap treatment. Hence they (eg the WHO, the SA Hypertension Society and medical schools- state clinics)- blacklist the best baseline treatment- lowdose amilozide and lowdose reserpine, to promote sales of ever-newer unproven drugs with multiple risks. .
But 60 years of experience (5 centuries in India) confirms that Rauwolfia and its extract reserpine remain the best and sufficient treatment for most patients provided it is combined with a mild diuretic eg magnesium-potassium; or natural herbs eg Green tea, cranberry juice, Apple cider vinegar , Dandelion, Nettle, Fennel, buchu, horsetail;
or a magnesium-potassium conserving equivalent- the recent proven designer ie synthetic lowdose safe diuretic amilozide eg Amiloretic 55mg 1/4 to 1/2 tab, combined with natural lowdose reserpine 0.25mg tab 1/4 to 1/2 tab, both initially daily, eventually perhaps only 3 days a week. . These lower HBP and associated anxiety/depression gently but surely to avoid complications.
The NMC is open office hours from 9 am 6 days a week, and offers objective electronic arm and leg bloodpressure measurement and if required urine and heart testing for causes and effects of hypertension etc. If desired, appointment can be made with a hypertension-metabolic specialist physician.
see https://healthspanlife.wordpress.com/category/reserpine/ for further details to fight dementia, stroke, heart/kidney failure, heartattack, blindness, diabetes, gangrene, etc. The last thing the Disease Industry and hospitals, medical schools want us to do is wipe out these common diseases with safe lowcost treatment..
update 22/3/2014: the March equinox:Vaccines and antivirals for preventing and treating influenza in healthy adults have very modest benefit. as the seasonal flu epidemic wanes in the northern hemisphere and approaches in the south, Authorities eg the US CDC continue relentlessly to promote mass flu vaccination. The South African Authority NICD recommends vaccination for anyone at high risk ie the elderly, infants or the sick, and carers. It also recommends antivirals eg Tamiflu for infection- but the BMJ recently publishes Study claiming Tamiflu saved lives was based on “flawed” analysis. a 2012 BMJ report by the samemedical journalist Zosia Kmietowicz notes Cochrane group rejects Roche’s offer of “advisory board” to discuss analysis of oseltamivir data. The 2011 Cochrane question remains unresolved: Does Oseltamivir Tamiflu Really Reduce Complications of Influenza?
But current Cochrane review of controlled trial publications to 2013 confirms “Vaccination of pregnant women is recommended internationally, while healthy adults are targeted in North America. The overall efficacy of inactivated vaccines in preventing confirmed influenza has a NNV of 71 (95% CI 64 to 80). . Live aerosol vaccines have an overall effectiveness corresponding to a NNV 46 (95% CI 29 to 115). Vaccination had a modest effect on time off work and had no effect on hospital admissions or complication rates. Inactivated vaccines caused local harms. CONCLUSIONS: Influenza vaccines have a very modest effect in reducing influenza symptoms and working days lost in the general population, including pregnant women. This review includes 90 studies, 24 of which (26.7%) were funded totally or partially by industry. Out of the 48 RCTs, 17 were industry-funded (35.4%).
A current German review Methodological quality of systematic reviews on influenza vaccination. Fourty-six systematic reviews fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Average methodological quality was high but variability was large (AMSTAR range: 0-11). Quality did not differ significantly according to vaccination target group. Cochrane reviews had higher methodological quality than non-Cochrane reviews (p=0.001). this was due to better study selection and data extraction, inclusion of unpublished studies, and better reporting of study characteristics (all p<0.05).
Abstract: The Semmelweis Reflex is about rejecting, deriding important new scientific discoveries or any serious sincere statement/action. I didnt fully appreciate the importance of that age-old human (mostly male) evil – mocking, martyrdom and murder by denialism- until I started this review of the current flu season threat and the role of supplements, and researched pioneer medical martyrs Drs Ignaz Semmelweis, Jack Drummond and Linus Pauling as paradigms of the scourge of modern vested-interest denialism and falsehoods, in medicine as much as politics, religion etc..
In fact, just as it is negligence to deny (as Semmelweis’s persecutors did) gloving up or properly washing hands between examining patients , or ensure that every adult has bloodpressure checked occasionally, it is clearly bad practice not to ensure that everyone – especially the young and old, takes a multinutrient plus extra vigorous dose vitamins D3 and C, plus some protective herbs- garlic, cinnamon, ginger, origanum; and fish oil and/or coconut oil if not both; and drastically cut down sweetness intake- especially fructose, sucrose and aspartame that now pervade all mass- produced food and drinks..
update 21 January 2014 : URGENT: THE 2014 FLU EPIDEMIC: “High H1N1 prevalence and mortality rates a concern: Type A (H1N1) influenza, the commonest flu virus in Canada this year, has a higher than anticipated mortality rate causing some to wonder if it’s virulence has increased. The worrisome factor “is the reported mortality rate,” says McGill University. As of Jan. 13, there were twenty confirmed deaths in Canada attributed to H1N1. “There are more deaths than what we expect for the regular H1N1 influenza, The strain this year could be more virulent . 96% of this year’s lab -confirmed influenza is H1N1. The virus is unusual in that it appears to affect younger people more than other strains of seasonal influenza. People 20 to 65 are being hit harder than usual, comprising 52% of flu cases. However, if you look at Europe, it’s still H3N2. Its an example of how you never know what the flu is going to do.” Alberta confirmed a death on Jan. 8, due to the virus H5N1, an avian virus. The deceased woman had recently returned from China. The mortality rate is higher with H5N1 than H1N1, “but fortunately, it’s not an easy virus to transmit”. So far, it seems that there are no cases of H5N1 transmission from human-to-human. It seems like the cases of H5N1 are few and far between and related to contact with birds in China. Patrick Janukavicius, Montréal, Quebec. In the same period, at least 20 children have reportedly died of the same strain in USA.
update 12 Jan 2014 THE ANTIFLU VACCINE DECEPTION: this review by Doc Joe Mercola stresses the disease-mongering myths, futility and risks in real life of flu vaccination and antiflu drugs eg Tamiflu ; and the overwhelming importance of natural immune boosters like Vit D3 & C, zinc, selenium, herbs, and hygienic prevention.
1 Jan 2014 CURRENT INFLUENZA STATUS: The 22 December solstice is the sun at its southern nadir seen from planet Earth, the onset respectively of real winter in the Northern hemisphere, and real summer in South Africa. Last year the Gregorian New Year heralded a fierce flu season in the northern hemisphere, and as usual feathered- and jet-propelled air travel brought the corresponding surge at the bottom of Africa.
And ominously, the Plagues & Pandemics (Howard Phillips 2012) of temperate climates that did so much historically to mould global demography not least the past 360 years in South Africa ( –STDS- pox, bubonic, polio, cholera, influenza, and now tuberculosis, Mad Cow disease, and HIV-AIDS). and especially antibiotic-resistant germs – are all on the increase despite (or because of) the increasingly futile $trillion armamentarium of 20th century designer vaccines and other antimicrobials..
Pneumonia is a welcome friend of the old, often rapidly relieving prolonged degenerative incapacity; such ending mostly by virus respiratory infection the gateway for the final bacterial infection.
Unlike the selflimited coronavirus common cold, breath-and hand-borne type A influenza, although usually mild in the well, is the commonest trigger in the frail. Many of us in our (grand)parents’ time lost relatives in the 1918/1919 “Spanish” H1N1 flu pandemic. But that was a unique global catastrophe because it killed mostly armies of healthy men, and then young working adults, apparently from cytokine storm, with 30 % of the workforce out for up to3 weeks if not 20% mortality. This is harrowingly described in the recently published Letters ( to his Mother) of Dr Arthur Conan Doyle, who lost – apart from his first wife to TB- more young relatives to the flu than to warfare.
The recent spring months here – apart from seasonal allergies -have seen declining viral respiratory illness in Cape Town, with the upper respiratory accent often shifted down to more gastritis-enteritis .
But New Year 2014 UK and northern North America forecast and are having a wet if not white New Year. ‘Flu rates are reported already high and rising in USA and Canada– mostly influenza A H1N1(swine-avian flu-the main 1918/19 killer); including already 6 deaths in USA and 3 in Canada.
but not in Europe, where the influenza (A > B) prevalence is still low and slightly more H3N2 than H1N1; in UK there has rather been been increase in RSV respiratory syncytial virus bronchitis in infants. . .
In fact by 28 December the exploding H1N1 deathtoll had hit 13 in Texas alone; especially in youths; with increasing Tamiflu resistance reported eg in Missisippi.. On 24 Dec the USA CDC mailed an emergency Advisory Notice to Clinicians: Early Reports of pH1N1-Associated Illnesses for the 2013-14 Influenza Season: From November through December 2013, CDC has received a number of reports of severe respiratory illness among young and middle-aged adults, many of whom were infected with influenza A pH1N1 pdm09 virus. Multiple pH1N1-associated hospitalizations, including many requiring intensive care unit (ICU) admission, and some fatalities have been reported. While it is not possible to predict which influenza viruses will predominate during the entire 2013-14 influenza season, pH1N1 has been the predominant circulating virus so far. For the 2013-14 season, if pH1N1 virus continues to circulate widely, illness that disproportionately affects young and middle-aged adults may occur.
Our regional South African Communicable Diseases Institute says , “H1N1 was documented here from April to September. But of 2566 pts with severe respiratory illness for January to October 2013 enrolled and tested at the five sentinel sites, only 6% were positive for influenza – mostly virus -H1N1. A pneumonia case in Cape Town was found to be due to Leigionnaire’s.
Now from China 147 human cases of avian influenza H7N9 have been confirmed including 48 deaths. – especially from poultry contact. No vaccine is currently available for avian influenza (H7N9) virus.
SAPA–AFP, 10 December 2013: Resistant flu virus keeps contagiousness. A mutant form of the H7N9 flu virus that is resistant to frontline drugs is just as contagious as its non-resistant counterpart, according to a study, published inthe journal Nature Communications. The virus has claimed dozens of lives since its outbreak in February. H7N9 is believed to have spread to humans from poultry, where it circulates naturally. The World Health Organisation (WHO) said on its website that “so far”, no evidence has emerged of “sustained” transmission of H7N9 among people.
And H7N1 and H7N7 has broken out in ostriches in South Africa,
So never mind the common cold coronaviruses and many other prevalent infections, increased caution is due against all common diseases at this season- both the USA H1N1 swine flu circulating the past few years, and now the Chinese H7N9 flu. . And the MERS-Co Virus Middle-East SARS-type outbreak has not gone away… 9 new cases reported the past week or two from the KSA alone .–the-deadly-middle-east-coronavirus-outbreak/
A current NEJM has a new report of a trial of quadrivalent Vaccine for Prevention of Mild and Moderate-to-Severe Influenza in Children by vaccine manufacturers GSK. The vaccine reduced severity by perhaps 70%- but at a cost of 1.5% serious adverse events, 50% more than the control group (hepatitis A vaccine only). The question remains- why risk flu vaccine’s ~1.5% serious adverse events when a single high dose of vitamin D3 300 000iu even just annually, and regular vitamin C with a multivite including zinc and selenium (at trivial cost ) largely cover one against a multitude of infections including AIDS and TB, and all degenerative health problems?
Is it coincidence, or divine evolution, that we have had available at low cost for about 60 year (never mind zinc, selenium, iron, iodine, vitamins A and vitamin E) two safe natural major antimicrobials in vigorous safe dose – vitamins C and D3? Medico-Pharma Big Business and governments have been heavily discrediting and ruthlessly suppressing these for their own profiteering vested interest even as plagues of HIV, TB, influenza rage, and Big Business determinedly profits hugely from killer smoking and alcohol sales despite increasing marketing restriction? South Africa- a major producer of alcohol and tobacco-smoke, and fossil-fuel-burning power stations, factories and motorvehicles – continues to lead the world with the highest road and respiratory death rates despite zealous attempts to reduce their lethal use.
Apart from optimal hygiene including avoiding livestock and poultry contact, smoking, alcoholism and pollution including swimming and sick buildings- air-conditioning- what can we take to minimize avoidable influenza ie immune depletion risk? apart from enough sunshine, exercise, rest, sleep, walking barefoot, not carrying a cellphone, and good mixed fresh organic diet? The clinical benefit of influenza vaccines is anything but proven, and the adverse risks appreciable.
Big Business and thus governments and the media profit from illness, so they keep publishing articles promoting Big Business: new antibiotics, vaccines and other synthetic drugs that do not prevent or cure but if anything perpetuate chronic degenerative obesity-diabetes-vascular-respiratory,- digestive-arthritic-cancer diseases; – and GMO-genetically modified preserved food and bottled drinks stuffed with slow poisons like refined cornstarch – fructose; salt; sucrose and cereals, soya, Roundup, antibiotics, preservatives, estrogenics, aspartame, and especially boiled and baked omega6 and sugars; instead of marine omega3 and MCT- medium chain triglyceride virgin coconut oil, and unrefined cereals eg oats, wholewheat bread etc..
Big Business and it’s cash-cow Disease Industry decries the natural healthgiving lowsugar Asian/ Mediterranean diet-organically pastured and grown livestock meat and dairy products, lightly cooked if not raw (oily) fish, fruit and nuts, coloured veggies, and plenty of oils in their natural plant form. These were the norm till food processing became Big Business in our lifetime post WW2, and the developed world was bluffed by Organized Medicine, the Food Barons and Big Pharma with the masterly fiction of Ancel Keyes, into jettisoning the natural longevity “sea and farm” diet of the east eg Japan, and West eg Mediterranean (fresh produce & cholesterol-rich dairyproducts, meat and fish) for the Diet Deception (Gary Taubes, Tim Noakes) and Bad Pharma ( James le Fanu, Ben Goldacre) of Ancel Keyes‘ low-fat high-refined cereals, margarine; and the cholesterol -busting and psychotropes/ painkillers /antidementia/antivascular/ antidiabetic disease Designer Drugs-for-all myths.
It spends multimillions promoting alcohol, smoking and ever-newer designer prescription drugs and vaccine, and disinformation on old well-proven cheap drugs like reserpine, amilozide, metformin, natural physiological human hormone replacement, natural antioxidants and anti-inflammatories , and decrying ineffective but deliberately lowdose and isolated or imbalanced vitamins and minerals .
The ATBC vits A+E trial (isolated highdose vits A and E) was one such farce in very high risk smokers in an icy climate. . Others have been the recent Norwegian trial using only up to 1000iu vit D supplement a day,
*a commercial multisupplement in the TACT post-heart attack trial – but the composition of the multisupplement included only deficiency-disease prevention microdoses of micronutrients including 100iu vitamin D3/d and equally negligible vitamin K- not pharmacological doses of key vitamins eg vits B, C, D & K2 that are well proven to greatly reduce infections and chronic degenerative diseases ;
* the Physicians’ Health Study randomized elderly professional men to placebo or combinations of vitamin C (500 mg synthetic ascorbic acid), vitamin E (400 IU of synthetic alpha-tocopherol), beta-carotene (50 mg Lurotin), and a multivitamin (Centrum Silver – this included anti-deficiency disease low dose of all common vits and minerals BUT only 400iu Vit D3), .
* The third study- on lowdose (traditional anti-deficiency disease) Vitamin and Mineral Supplements in the Primary Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease and Cancer was simply a literature review of 26 best-quality published trials of microdoses – not pharmacological safe macrodoses.
ie these three trials published in this Annals Internal Medicine issue to please Big Pharma advertisors to discredit supplements shared the usual problem of now well-known futile lowdose supplement doses at least of vitamins D3 and K, if not also vitamin C in the multigram dose scientifically promoted by the Drs Stone- Klenner-Pauling followers.
Sir Jack Cecil Drummond (1891-1952) was one of the world’s pioneer 20th century biochemists and nutritionists in UK, from 1916- 1952 discovering or defining and promoting under his world-famous biochemist professors Rosenheim, Halliburton and Funk the role especially of vits A, B, C and E. Thanks to his and Churchill’s forceful vision and foresight, he oversaw food supply and diet and thus keeping Britons healthy through and after WW2. He was so successful in promoting healthy cheap and unpatentable micronutrients and natural fresh food (in the face of the mushrooming megaprofit processed food and designer drug industry) that it speculatively led to his and his family’s 1952 assassination by competing interests in France –The Vitamin Murders, Fergusson 2007. .
MURDER BY DENIALISM: It is incontrovertible common cause that irrational and often jealous medical denialism costs endless lives:
* Scurvy prevention: Dr James Lind (who did the first ever recorded clinical trial) showed by 1750 that sailors’ scurvy on long sea voyages was preventable; but despite his pioneer discovery, the British navy cost the lives of thousands more seamen from scurvy when the Admirals neglected for 50years until the Napoleonic Wars to supply the fresh produce- eg limes – that rapidly cured and prevented the lethal scourge.
This despite the fact that another UK navy surgeon Dr John Woodall had already over 130 years earlier- by 1617 – published in UK The Surgeon’s Mate stating We have in our owne country here many excellent remedies generally knowne,- Scurvy-grasse, Horse-Reddish roots, Nasturtia Aquatica, Wormwood, Sorrell, and many other good meanes… to the cure of those at home…and Sea-men returned from farre who by the only natural disposition of the fresh aire and amendment of diet, nature herselfe in effect doth the Cure (of scurvy- for which antiscorbutic citrus had been known since antiquity) without other helps. the Lemmons, Limes, Tamarinds, Oranges, and other choice of good helps in the Indies… do farre exceed any that can be carried tither from England.
* Childbed fever prevention: in 1865 Dr Ignaz Semmelweis (1818 -’65) an AustroHungarian Roman Catholic ob-gyne in Vienna, was locked up, and beaten to death within weeks, because he showed – to the outrage of his peers- that handwashing with chlorinated lime eradicated the epidmic puerperal fever (three times that in the midwives’ ward) in the doctors’ labour wards; 70years before Thir Reich terrorists took charge, his senior colleagues reacted violently to his progressive promotion of (what was already more advanced British and French) hygiene and science, and his urging them to wash their hands after examining corpses before examining women in labour.. . Tragically for Semmelweis and new mothers in the Hapsburg empire then, Pasteur (b 1822) and Lister (b 1827) ‘s germ antiseptic discoveries were already being implemented further west, but had not yet been publicized.
*metformin after centuries of use as an antidiabetic herb galega officinalis, and its extraction as an antidiabetic in 1922, came into increasing use globally from the 1950s as the best treatment for type 2 diabetes, but the USA- to protect their own new patent antidiabetic drugs – ruthlessly suppressed its use there (like that of the natural salt lithium for manic depression) for 40years till the mid-1990s.
*AIDS and ART denialism: until 5 years ago in South Africa the overwhelming-majority “people’s” government (with the country’s vast resources), and its successive “health” ministers, cost the lives of an estimated 300 000 AIDS victims through sufferers – indigent state dependents- being denied antiretroviral ART drugs, (never mind still till now denied quality education and civil security, and thus adequate basic nutrition, and meaningful housing, jobs and thus hope.) Genocidal AIDS denialism about which the still-ruling (since 1994) leadership cadre did nothing until under intense international pressure and repeated Constitutional Court orders, combined with political rival factioneering in the ruling party, they ousted the denialist president and his denialist Disease Minister in 2008.
DENIALISM TARGETS IN NUTRITION:
VIGOROUS VITAMIN C ASCORBIC ACID PHARMACOTHERAPY : Much effort and Big Pharma money has been spent to denigrate the irrefutable science-based work (between their advocacy years shown) of Drs Irvine Stone (1934-1984), Fred Klenner(1948-74) and Linus Pauling (1970-1991) of antibiotic dose >50 to 1000 mg/kg/d pure vitamin C (not the antiscurvy 10mg/d) – as a universally needed essential in primates. We primats, like guineapigs and a few birds and fish species, are among the few that do not make their own since we lost the needed gene and thus enzyme in our evolution..
It took about 150 years after Lind’s publication for the antiscorbutic factor to be named as vitamin C by Dr Jack Drummond, another 10 years for it to be assayed and its structure proven- but despite the pioneering clinical work of Dr Fred Klenner in the 1950s proving the lifesaving benefit of tens of grams a day intravenously, it took another 20 years before Dr Linus Pauling took up Dr Irvine Stone’s conviction and put highdose vitamin C on the world Nobel prize map; just on Pubmed, vitamin C has >51 000 citations since 1921, and intravenously in 763 entries since 1946, with Dr Fred Klenner reporting it intravenously asmajor antibiotic in the Southern Medical journal from 1948..
The 2009 book Injectable Vitamin C and the Treatment of Viral and Other Diseases collection of medical journal papers from the 1930s to 2006 details the exhaustive scientific evidence proving the uniform benefit of even 1gm a day vit C both as an antimicrobial antiinflammatory antioxidant and immunomodulator against major crippling / lethal diseases from polio to tuberculosis, pneumonia, hepatitis, rabies, encephalitis, neuritis, poisoning, cancer, and pancreatitis;
and the persistent resistance of the FDA and other multinational Regulators to recognize (so as to protect their domestic patent drug manufacturers- Big Pharma and their politician and civil service lobbyists )- such uniquely safe and effective natural drug therapy. The final chapters of that 2009 book pose the crucial questions of overwhelming vested interest by the organized medical – hospital –pharmaceutical mega-industry and governments in not eradicating preventable disease, the Big Pharma banning of natural effective remedies- The Origin of the 42-Year Stonewall of Vitamin C, and Medical Resistance to Innovation,
The University of Oregon, the Riordan-Gonzalez group and more recently Hemila and Chaker‘ and Ullah et al’ s 2012 reviews have published much validating what Drs Goodall, Lind, Drummond, Stone, Klenner, Pauling and Cameron started.VIGOROUS VITAMIN D3 CHOLECALCIFEROLPHARMACOTHERAPY costing wholesale ~ <US$0.5/month for ~200 000iu /month in South Africa) reduces serious infection by perhaps 90% ie 9fold: . eg 80iu/kg/d – 500iu/d (15000u/month) for an infant, 50 000iu/wk or 200 000iu/mo for an adult; who if obese, may need two to three times the average dose, to achieve the (?) optimal 25OH vit D level of around 70ng/ml for health, higher for any acute or chronic chronic illness.
The modern prophets of vitamin D3 have been the three pre-WW2 doyens :
Prof Chris E Nordin (MB ChB 1950) working in bone physiology for 60 years now; 84 papers on vitamin D on Pubmed
Prof Walter Stumpf (1927-2012; MD 1952) the recently deceased professor at North Carolina University, neuropsychiatrist and radiobiologist in his 60year medical career with over 500 publications (76 on Vit D on Pubmed) including early discovering that vitamin D targets all systems and diseases; professor-walter-e-stumpf-ahead-of-his-time/ and https://healthspanlife.wordpress.com/tag/stumpf-dr-walter/
paralled by Prof Robert Heaney (MD 1951) at Creighton University, osteoporosis and nutrition authority with 119 vitamin D papers on Pubmed since 1982, over 400 publications to date;
succeeded by Prof Mike Holick (PhD 1971, MD 1976) with 391 publications on vitamin D since 1970 on Pubmed, who has done more than most to show that the maximum daily body production of vitamin D3 with plenty of sunlight is enough to prevent rickets and reduce all disease, but nowhere near the pharmacologically therapeutic 80iu/kg/d needed to maintain a vigorous all-disease protective bloodlevel of 60-100ng/ml.
and Dr John Cannell (MD 1976, registered psychiatrist from 1993, nutritionalist), a legendary whistleblower . who successively campaigned against #cigarette smoking; and uncovered: # the cigarette-smoking (Black Lung) compensationitis fraud of miners’ pneumoconiosis; #the fictitious inflated “above national average” school results (Lake Woebegone) that all states were inventing and reporting (as is still happening – mass government deception- in South Africa) ; then the
# recovered memory therapy (RMT) scandal – a form of psychotherapy in which patients recovered memories of abuse that they had no previous memory of. Such therapy resulted in false memory syndrome (FMS) of events that never occurred as well as an epidemic of multiple personality disorder (MPD), a rare disorder historically conceived of as being a hysterical disorder. Unfortunately, many MPD patients believed the psychiatrist conducting the RMT and went home to falsely accuse their parents and others of horrendous acts that never occurred. Cannell teamed up with two Harvard professors to write a peer reviewed paper on RMT, debunking the witch-hunt; then since the 1990s researching and promoting # vitamin D deficiency as major cause of much psychopathology including autism, and vigorous vitamin D therapy to correct multiple diseases, through the Vitamin D Council. He has (co)authored some 13 papers, and published a book. .
Now a major longterm German Cancer Research screening program has just publishd the 2002-2013 ESTHER study (Perna ea) of 10 000 citizens followed with serial 25OH vit D levels; to assess the association of apparently unsupplemented vit D levels with fatal and nonfatal CVD in the same study population. Follow-up data, including survival status, up to over 9 years. Comparing subjects with 25(OH)D levels below 12ng/ml and above 20ng/ml resulted in the lower vitamin D level cohort showing a higher hazard ratio of 1.27 (95% confidence interval = 1.05-1.54) for total CVD and 1.62 (1.07-2.48) for fatal CVD in a model adjusted for important potential confounders. No significant association for nonfatal CVD was observed. In dose-response analysis, we observed an increased cardiovascular risk at 25(OH)D levels below 30ng/ml. Results for CHD and stroke were comparable to the results obtained for the composite outcome CVD. Our results support evidence that low 25(OH)D levels are associated with moderately increased risk of CVD, BUT the observed association is much stronger for fatal than for nonfatal events.
But the benefit of sunlight in healing tuberculosis has been used for well over a century; while the Google antibiotic benefit of calciferol on Pubmed goes back at least to 1950.
In a prospective 16 mo trial in press from Australia, vit D3 even just 60 000iu/month (ie 2000iu/day) halved antibiotic use in seniors. (Tran, Neale ea 2014) Effect of vitamin D supplementation on antibiotic use: a randomized controlled trial.
Since the toxic dose of vitamin D long term reportedly may be as high as 600 000iu/day or a blood level well >150ng/l , imagine how much better the antimicrobial benefit of vitamin D3 at 80 to 100iu/kg/day or pro rata – even higher eg 10 000+iu/day for obese people who sequester more vit D in fat. .
Dr Robert F Cathcart wrote 30 to 20 years ago in Med Hypotheses. 1981 Vitamin C, titrating to bowel tolerance, anascorbemia, and acute induced scurvy The amount of oral ascorbic acid tolerated by a patient without producing diarrhea increase somewhat proportionately to the stress or toxicity of his disease. Bowel tolerance doses of ascorbic acid ameliorate the acute symptoms of many diseases. Lesser doses often have little effect on acute symptoms but assist the body in handling the stress of disease and may reduce the morbidity of the disease. However, if doses of ascorbate are not provided to satisfy this potential draw on the nutrient, first local tissues involved in the disease, then the blood, and then the body in general becomes deplete of ascorbate (Anascorbinemia and Acute Induced Scurvy). The patient is thereby put at risk for complications of metabolic processes known to be dependent upon ascorbate. 1984 Vitamin C in the treatment of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). evidence is that massive doses of ascorbate (50-200 grams per 24 hours) suppress the symptoms of the disease and can markedly reduce secondary infections. In combination with usual treatments for the secondary infections, large doses of ascorbate will often produce a clinical remission which shows every evidence of being prolonged if treatment is continued. .. despite continuing laboratory evidence of helper T-cell suppression. There may be a complete or partial destruction of the helper T-cells during an initial infection that does not necessitate a continuing toxicity from some source to maintain a permanent or prolonged helper T-cell suppression. However, it is possible ascorbate may prevent that destruction if used adequately during that prodrome period. Emphasis is put on the recognition and treatment of the frequent intestinal parasites. Food and chemical sensitivities occur frequently in the AID syndrome and may aggravate symptoms considered to be part of the AID syndrome. A topical C-paste has been found very effective in the treatment of herpes simplex and, to a lesser extent, in the treatment of some Kaposi’s lesions. Increasingly, clinical research on other methods of treating AIDS is being “contaminated” by patients taking ascorbate. 1991 A unique function for Vitamin C is as reducing substance, electron donor. When vitamin C donates its two high-energy electrons to scavenge free radicals, much of the resulting dehydroascorbate is re-reduced to vitamin C and therefore used repeatedly. Conventional wisdom is correct in that only small amounts of vitamin C are necessary for this function because of its repeated use. The point missed is that the limiting part in nonenzymatic free radical scavenging is the rate at which extra high-energy electrons are provided through NADH to re-reduce the vitamin C and other free radical scavengers. When ill, free radicals are formed at a rate faster than the high-energy electrons are made available. Doses of vitamin C as large as 1-10 g per 24 h do only limited good. However, when ascorbate is used in massive amounts, such as 30-200+ g per 24 h, these amounts directly provide the electrons necessary to quench the free radicals of almost any inflammation, and reduces NAD(P)H and therefore provide the high-energy electrons necessary to reduce the molecular oxygen used in the respiratory burst of phagocytes. In these functions, the ascorbate part is mostly wasted but the necessary high-energy electrons are provided in large amounts.
A recent review from Atlanta Kearns ea found 30 papers which aggregate to show that annual vitamin D3 dose (not D2) of optimally 300 000 to 500 000iu (wholesale cost ~R5 in South Africa) for deficient adults is best for avoiding poor patient compliance with minimal risk and major benefit.
THE INFERIORITY OF VITAMIN D2 SUPPLEMENT: It should be noted that the long-used Lennon’s Strong Calciferol datasheet (1974 updated 2004) does not indicate that this 50 000iu tablet labelled ‘calciferol’ is in fact vitamin D2 (ergocalciferol), not the fourfold more potent cholecalciferol D3 formed by sunlight in the skin. This is disclosed only on the Lennons website.. and in the South African Medicines Formulary. So ‘Strong Calciferol’ in South Africa (actually the D2 not D3 form of calciferol) is convenient but seriously deceptive mislabeling- much weaker than the ideal vitamin D3, and therefore its effect unpredictable compared to D3- in fact Dierkes ea Norway show that giving D2 may actually lower 25OH vit D level in the blood.. Sadly, despite this being reported to the local manufacturers and authorities, no correction of the clinically serious misperception created by the Strong Calciferol label and insert has been issued to health practitioners by the Medicines Control Council and the manufacturer Aspen-Lennons.
A recent 8yr study in Cape Town blacks Reciprocal seasonal variation in vitamin D status and tuberculosis notifications in South Africa Martineau, Nhamoyebonde ,Wilkinson ea confirmed that vitamin D deficiency (serum 25(OH)D <20 mg/L) is associated with susceptibility to tuberculosis (TB) in HIV-uninfected people in Cape Town as it is Europe. Vitamin D deficiency was present in 62.7% of 370 participants and was associated (OR ~5.4) with active TB in both HIV-uninfected and HIV-infected -(P < 0.001) people. Vitamin D status varied according to season: 25(OH)D concentration was double in summer-January- March compared to winter (23 vs 12ng/l; P < 0.001). Reciprocal seasonal variation in TB notifications was observed:lowest in autumn and highest in spring October through December (4,2 vs. 5; P < 0.001). Vitamin D deficiency is highly prevalent among black Africans in Cape Town and is associated with susceptibility to active TB both in the presence and absence of HIV infection.
Antimicrobial implications of vitamin D is detailed by Youssef, Peiris ea (USA Dermato-Endocrinol 2011) against all microorganisms – viruses, fungi, bacteria, protozoa (except perhaps leishmaniasis) as both profound prevention and therapy; in many cases without commercially invented marketed antimicrobials to which there is growing and deadly microbial resistance, let alone toxicity.. There is evidence that seasonal vitamin D deficiency status contributed greatly to the 1918/19 flu-pneumonia pandemic (Grant & Giovannucci 2009).
and finally, a month ago JAMA published from Effect of Micronutrient Supplementation on Disease Progression in Asymptomatic Antiretroviral-Naive HIV-Infected Adults in Botswana A Randomized Clinical Trial, that Micronutrient deficiencies occur early in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, and supplementation with micronutrients may be beneficial; however, its effectiveness has not been investigated early in HIV disease among adults who are antiretroviral therapy (ART) naive. 2 year supplementation with either daily vitamins BCo, C and E, selenium alone, or B,C,E with selenium vs placebo: study conducted in 878 patients infected with HIV subtype C with a CD4 cell count greater than 350/μL who were not receiving ART between 2005 and July 2009. Results participants receiving the combined supplement of vitamins plus selenium vs placebo had half the risk of reaching CD4 cell count 250/μL or less (adjusted hazard ratio [HR], 0.46); and secondary events of combined outcomes for disease progression or AIDS-related death, whichever occurred earlier [adjusted HR, 0.56); . There was no effect of supplementation on HIV viral load. Multivitamins alone and selenium supplementation alone were not statistically different from placebo for any end point. Reported adverse events were adjudicated unlikely related to the intervention, and there were no notable differences in incidence of HIV-related and health-related events among study groups.Conclusions and Relevance In ART-naive HIV-infected adults, 24-month supplementation with a single supplement containing vitamins BCo,C,E and selenium was safe and significantly reduced the risk of immune decline and morbidity. Micronutrient supplementation may be effective when started in the early stages of HIV disease.the universities of Miami, Harvard and Florida
THE PARADOX OF THE GLUCOSE- ASCORBIC ACID- CHOLESTEROL- STEROID CASCADE: Is it coincidence, or evolution, that the basic animal fast-energy circulating anabolic substrates are glucose, fatty acids and aminoacids? from which basic glucose C6H12O6 ( from ingested fructose C6H12O6 and sucrose C12H22O11, or fats or protein) the liver manufactures the basic cardinal steroid cholesterol C27H46O. Then from cholesterol we metabolize by adding or splitting off carbon molecules the crucial anabolic and regulating human hormones- 1. ouabain C29H44O12 the adrenal hormone made also in the hypothalamus and heart ; adrenal), 2. active calciferol C27H44O the strengthening and reproductive secosteroid; 3 the prime sex/ reproductive steroids pregnenolone C21H32o2, and thence progesterone C21H30O2, testosterone C19H28O2, DHEA C19H24O2. and thence estradiol C18H24O2. and 4 the prime adrenal mineralo/glucocorticoid steroids cortisol C21H30O5, aldosterone C21H28O5.
But we primates and a few other species lost the ability to synthetise on demand in quantities of grams a day the crucial vitamin C ascorbic acid C6H8O6 that is key to all the above. And vested interests in the Disease Industry want us to believe the biological nonsense heresy that we must ingest minimal unprocessed foods- cholesterol, fats (especially dairy, marine oil Omega3 and medium-chain triglyceride- coconut oil) and abundant vitamins C and D3, but eat abundant processed foods- refined plant Omega6, refined carbs- fructose, sucrose, fruit juice, cooldrinks, cereals, confections- which overload causes insulin resistance and thus lipidemia, obesity- metabolic syndrome -diabetes, cancer and cardiovascular disease.
The Semmelweis reflex: A current Wiki essay sums up the current genocidal problems of deliberate deceptions/denialism in Diet, Vitamins and causality – for ruthless profit and possibly cynical eugenics: “The Semmelweis effect is a metaphor for the reflex-like tendency to reject new evidence or new knowledge because it contradicts established norms, beliefs or paradigms.The term originated from the saga of Dr Ignaz Semmelweis, who discovered that childbed fever mortality rates reduced ten-fold when doctors washed their hands with a chlorine solution before examining patients. His hand-washing suggestions were rejected by his contemporaries, often for non-medical reasons. For instance, some doctors refused to believe that a gentleman’s hands could transmit disease (see Contemporary reaction to Ignaz Semmelweis). In his book The Game of Life, Timothy Leary provided the following polemical definition of the Semmelweis reflex: “Mob behavior found among primates and larval hominids on undeveloped planets, in which a discovery of important scientific fact is punished”. The expression has found way into philosophy and religious studies as “unmitigated Humean skepticism concerning causality“.”
Idealism, ethics may evolve; but the problem of human bigotry, self-interest and subjective ie personal bias do not diminish, they spread. It is classic that Semmelweis (1818-1865) the observant innovative Catholic medical scientist of his time (before microbes and antiseptics were known) was fatuously condemned not just by his jealous competing Vienna colleagues, but even by his progressive and reformist Copenhagen contemporary obgyn Prof Carl Levy (1808-1865)- who outlived him by only 4 months;
ironically at the same time that their Copenhagen contemporary Dr Soren Kierkegaard (1813-1855) was increasingly isolating himself on the lonely ethical journey against the convenience lazzez- faire tide, writing for ethical life and religion against the hypocrisy of the Church and becoming the father of both reformist theology and psychology. But unlike Semmelweis who was way ahead of the bioscience and humanity of his time, Kierkegaard stuck to and isolated himself in promoting the incompatible ie blind-faith-based religion – the dilemma of Abraham’s conviction (or delusion) to sacrifice his son- and ethical morality;
and closely followed by Rudolph Steiner (1861-1925) another more profound European thinker who bridged science, spirituality, progressive education, architecture, agriculture, natural medicine, nutrition, and social reform;
contrary to the rationalists of the 19th Century “Age of Enlightenment” and since, like British historian-philosopher -ethicist Winwood Reade (1838 – 1875) who published the enduring secularist’s bible The Martyrdom of Man (1872), of which Churchill wrote 25 years later “he was right but wrong to say it” on the book’s critique of the wrongs of war and religion, of mankind’s selfishness, corruption and destructiveness (by the greedy aggressive acquisitive minority) against the weak masses and the environment) that carries on worse in the 21st century than even the 20th century; and 150 years later bioscientist and philosopher Stephen Jay Gould (1941-2002) rationalized sadly the non-overlapping Magisteria of Science and Faith, objective “provable” science – which in fact is seldom immutably constant as is mathematics- and purely faith-based “unprovable” religious belief.
It was only a year ago that Richard Conniff published his column on Strange Behaviours, The Medical Martyrs. And the medical hero martyrs in this review- Semmelweis, Margaret Sanger, Drummond and Pauling – never made it onto his list.
But then nor did the modern medical freedom fighters Steve Biko, Agostinho Neto, Che Guevera. Jonas Savimbi, Neil Aggett, and the living spouse of Steve Biko, Dr Mamphele Ramphele….
Women of the Century apart (like Margaret Sanger, Marie Curie, Eleanor Roosevelt, Golda Meir, Indira Gandhi, Helen Keller, Benazir Bhutto, Mother Theresa, Aung San Suu Kyi -many of whom have been martyred), it is a philosophical debate whether among the men the medical martyr Semmelweis (1818-1865) ranks with his 19thC contemporaries- Lincoln (1809-1865), Kierkegaard(1813-1855), Pasteur (1822-95), Lister (1827-1912) ; and his successors (and 20th C leading achievers): Koch(1843-1910), Edison(1847-1931), Steiner (1861-1925), Gandhi(1869-1948), Weizmann(1874-1952), Churchill (1874-1965), Einstein (1875-1955), Jung (1875-1961), FD Roosevelt(1882-1945), JK Galbraith(1908-2006), Martin Luther King (1929-68), Pauling and Mandela as arguably giant enduring male leaders -innovators- teachers and achievers of the past two centuries.
Unlike eg Socrates, Hippocrates and Jesus of Nazareth, one of the five greatest polymath medical and ethical sages of all time Rabbi Dr Moses Maimonides (RamBam) avoided martyrdom by burying himself in practicing selfless medical service for sultan and peasants alike, and jurisprudence for his GreekoRoman based Islamic-Sephardic times and philosophy, like his guru predecessor Avicenna and his contemporary savant Averroes. .
CONCLUSION: Today it can be argued that the denial of effective phamacotherapeutic doses of especially vitamins C and D3, let alone supportive doses of balancing vits (A, B1,3,5,6,9 & 12, E and K2); the often-crucially deficient minerals (eg magnesium, sulphur, phosphate, iodine, zinc and selenium), and biologicals like human transdermal balanced HRT, coenzyme Q10, alphalipoic acid, milk thistle, cinnamon, fish oil, chondroglucosamine, DMSO, coconut oil, is a repetition of denialism of the germ theory, and of optimal physiological human micronutrition as well as macronutrition. .
– especially when patients are poor and thus malnourished, and plagued by diarrhoea and stress, TB, lipidemic vascular disease and cancer; and when antiretroviral ART- although life-saving- is even more diabetogenic and neurotoxic than untreated AIDs.
Even transdermal administration is better than nothing, perhaps better (for the frail and noncompliant eg oldies) than oral or injection eg of vitamins D3 & C and progesterone , metformin, (in addition to the usual magnesium chloride, vits A, BCo & E) may be beneficial whether by patch or cream for both healing, infection, calming, heart, circulation, infection, arthritis, osteoporosis, and neuritis, applied under coconut oil, codliver oil and DMSO as further analgesic, anti-inflammatory, memory and absorption enhancers.
REFERENCES: New reviews bear out the major benefits of micronutrient supplements selenium, zinc, silver, vits A, B, C, D, E; and DMSO, sutherlandia and aloe against HIV-AIDs. and co-infection;
Effect of micronutrient supplementation on disease progression in asymptomatic, antiretroviral-naive, HIV-infected adults in Botswana: a randomized clinical trial.Baum MK, Marlink R ea .JAMA. 2013 Nov 27;310(20):2154-63. .
In vitro effects of Sutherlandia frutescens water extracts on cell numbers, morphology, cell cycle progression and cell death in a tumorigenic and a non-tumorigenic epithelial breast cell line.Stander A, Joubert AM. ea, J Ethnopharmacol. 2009 Jul 6;124(1):45-60
below are some of the most recent 94 studies of vitamin D and human infectionin published just in 2013:
New insights on the role of vitamin D in the progression of renal damage: Kidney Blood Press Res. 2013;37:667-78. . Lucisano S, Santoro D.ea Many studies indicate relationship between hypovitaminosis D and survival, vascular calcification, bone mineral metabolism, immune, cardiovascular and endocrine. Vitamin D analogs reduces proteinuria, in particular through suppression of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) and exerts anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects. In particular vitamin D deficiency contribute to an inappropriately activated RAAS, as a mechanism for progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and/or cardiovascular disease. Human and experimental models of CKD showed that vitamin D may interact with B and T lymphocytes and influence the phenotype and function of the antigen presenting cells and dendritic cells, promoting properties that favor the induction of tolerogenic T regulators rather than T effectory. Interstitial fibrosis may be prevented through vitamin D supplementation. .
Should vitamin D supplementation be a regular part of asthma care? Gordon BR.Otolaryngol Clin North Am. 2014 Feb;47:97-108. .Vitamin D (vitD3) deficiency occurs frequently and has profound effects on health, especially asthma.
Vitamin D in asthma and future perspectives.Huang H, Zarogoulidis K. ea Drug Des Devel Ther. 2013 Sep 23;7:1003-13.
vitamin D deficiency associated with development of Acinetobacter baumannii infections in critically ill patients?; Türkoğlu M, Aygencel G et al.; Journal of Critical Care 28 (5), 735-40 (Oct 2013)
Association between vitamin D and hepatitis C virus infection: a meta-analysis. Villar LM, Romero-Gomez M. ea World J Gastroenterol. 2013 Sep 21;19(35):5917-24.
Association between prehospital vitamin D status and hospital-acquired bloodstream infections. Quraishi SA, Christopher KB. Ea, Am J Clin Nutr. 2013 Oct;98(4):952-9.
Human parvovirus B19 associated dilated cardiomyopathy. Jain P, Jain A, Khan DN, Kumar M. BMJ Case Rep. 2013 Aug 5;2013.
The role of vitamin D supplementation in the risk of developing pneumonia: three independent case-control studies. Remmelts HH, van de Garde EM ea .Thorax. 2013 Nov;68(11):990-6.
Correlation between serum vitamin D level and severity of community acquired pneumonia in young children Ren J, Sun B, Miao P, Feng X. Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke Za Zhi. 2013 Jul;15(7):519-21. Chinese. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23866270
Role of vitamins D, E and C in immunity and inflammation. Shaik-Dasthagirisaheb YB, Pandolfi F. J ea Biol Regul [Correlation between serum vitamin D level and severity of community acquired pneumonia in young children].Homeost Agents. 2013 Apr-Jun;27(2):291-5.
Pre-hospital vitamin D concentration, mortality, and bloodstream infection in a hospitalized patient population.Lange N, Christopher KB ea. Am J Med. 2013 Jul;126(7):640.e19-27.
Vitamin D deficiency in HIV infection: an underestimated and undertreated epidemic. Pinzone MR, Nunnari G. eA Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci. 2013 May;17(9):1218-32.
Vitamin D deficiency and sudden unexpected death in infancy and childhood: a cohort study.Cohen MC, Offiah A, Sprigg A, Al-Adnani M. Pediatr Dev Pathol. 2013 Jul-Aug;16(4):292-300.
Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 and the risk of pneumonia in an ageing general population.Aregbesola A, Tuomainen TP. ea J Epidemiol Community Health. 2013 ;67:533-6.
Treatment of pulmonary tuberculosis.Nunn A, Phillips PP, Abubakar I.Curr Opin Pulm Med. 2013 ;19(3):273-9.
Role of vitamin D in children with respiratory tract infection.Esposito S, Baggi E, Bianchini S, Marchisio P, Principi N. Int J Immunopathol Pharmacol. 2013 J26(1):1-13.
Tuberculosis incidence correlates with sunshine: an ecological 28-year time series study.Koh GC, Dedicoat M. PLoS One. 2013;8:e57752.
Improving outcomes in patients with psoriasis.Tidman MJ. Practitioner. 2013 ;257:27-30, 3.
vitamin C refs & infection:
Authors’ perspective: What is the optimum intake of vitamin C in humans? Frei B, Birlouez-Aragon I, Lykkesfeldt J. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr. 2012;52(9):815-29.
Micronutrients at the interface between inflammation and infection—ascorbic acid and calciferol. Parts 1 & 2: .Ströhle A, Wolters M, Hahn A. Inflamm Allergy Drug Targets. 2011 ;10:54-74- FULL TEXT IS ON LINE. .
Vitamin C for preventing and treating tetanus Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2008 Apr 16;(2):
update 8 August 2013 the OregonUniversity Linus Pauling Institute website still promotes the numerous benefits of fishoil.
update 2 August 2013 the Topol- Rowen- Peskin rejection of need for fish oil EPA+DHA was not supported by the recently NEJM-published R&P 5 year trial in Italy, which compared modified ie patented ethylester marine essential fatty acids with olive oil.
This R&P trial was thus not a trial of fish oil (concentrate or otherwise), nor placebo-controlled, since olive oil is hardly a placebo- in the 13.4year Spanish EPIC trial published last year , olive oil dramatically reduced all-cause mortality by 1/4 and CVD mortality by 44%. The full 2013 NEJM R&P paper is inexcusably silent in omitting this cardinal fact that it was no ways placebo-controlled- placebo means an inert comparator.
the 2010 Nordic study ( Dyerberg ea Copenhagen University- who first reported in 1978 the association between marine omega3 PUFA and health in Eskimos) http://www.nordicnaturals.com/images/pdfs/tgstudy.pdf details the better bio-availability of natural ie triglyceride- bound fish oil- EPA+DHA compared to that in processed ethylester low-triglyceride omega3 products- as used in the R&P and GISSI trials of patented commercial designer products. .
2 June 2013 Its some 4 years since this healthsite started promoting marine oil for optimal development and health.
what say you to the latest hype about the predictable negative result of the Italian N-3 Cardiovascular Risk and Prevention trial R&P from the NEJM? ie that omega3 oil was no better than olive oil.
the major problem is that the R&P trial didnt use natural clean FISH OIL, nor in primary prevention.
Nowhere does it say it used fish oil- it says N-3 ie omega3, and in patients with multiple vascular disease. Nor does the original 2010 R&P plannng paper state that in fact it used a patent formula of chemically changed ethyl esters in tertiary prevention,
like the GISSI trial used apparently patent branded altered Om3 after heart attacks – it wasnt natural clean fish oil..
the GISSI abstracts 1999 and 2008 also dont mention fish oil.So it wasnt natural fish oil like I use and promote- clean codliver oil or clean om3 concentrate from clean factories in northern Europe and now even from Cape Town.. The R&P abstract paper cleverly doesnt mention the brand Omega3 name- but Pfizer funded the trial…Its the “top” journals likely up to their old tricks, publishing probable infomercials paid for in this case by Pfizer and mates, without making that clear.I cant see if these Italian trials used Lovza/Omacor or whatever Big Pharma chemically altered snakeoils.But looking at the extensive debate already around Dr Topol’s condemnation of real fishoil supplement, many commentators fell into the same trap- they didnt notice that R&P didnt use fish oil, but about 850mg/day ethyl esters of omega3.
Synthetic patent designer drugs dont do what the natural food/supplement/human biophysiologic product does.
Ethyl esters eg ethinylestradiol, and xenohormones eg Premarin, are dangerously different from estradiol. Look at the controversy, the danger in using altered natural products eg:
slowrelease niacin instead of natural niacin.
or neurontin/lyrica or benzos instead of natural GABA to bind to the GABA receptors. or anabolic steroids eg methyltestost instead of testosterone. or methylprogesterone Provera instead of progesterone. or margarine instead of butter !. or methanol – dangerously different from ethanol; or synthetic substitutes for natural digoxin…
or the Women’s Health Initiative- which through gross misrepresentation stopped many women from using beneficial physiological human HRT for 10 years, despite the bad design of the WHI that used long-proven risky xenohormones (premarin, provera) at dangerous older age, while in the first 6 years it enormously benefitted women in the first decade after menopause.. .It’s dis-ingenouos of Messrs Rowen, Topol and Peskin not to state this, that the R&P TRIAL DIDNT USE FISH OIL..
Dr Rowen and Mr Peskin are heavily promoting their own PEO Parent Essential Oil Brand of Omega6 plant oils. The evidence is that such combination is excellent benefit- but I see no science, no reason not to balance it with clean fish oil since this is now so deficient in general diet.But surely Prof Topol is doing patients a huge disservice in backing the R&P trial in dumping fish oil -when that trial didnt use fish oil, and makes no conclusion about fish ol?
I await the full copy of the R&P study – which the NEJM mysteriously doesnt make available on line as they usually do with any seriously important new study.. .No-one doubts that good plant oils , good mixed diet have benefit.there is no doubt that a few gms of fish oil a day have huge benefit.
Its the balance that matters- and the avoidance of smoking, sloth, adiposity, refined sugars and cooked animal fats that matters.so I see no reason to change from taking/ recommending daily a tsp (or 4) of codliver oil (ie about 800 – 3000mg EPA+DHA) ,
and olives/ mixed nut/plant/olive oils on salads/pasta etc ,
what say you?…