(No emergencies or surgery- these must go to nearest polyclinic or hospital ER). .
or consultations by Telephone/email where appropriate.
It does not show that metformin causes any heart or thyroid dysfunction ie change in thyroid hormone levels, merely that it reduces TSH in those on thyroid replacement.- indicating that thyroid dose may be able to be tapered.
A parallel new study from Italy Metformin-induced thyrotropin suppression is not associated with cardiac effects confirms there is no heart risk- quite the contrary.
People tend to fatten and slow down as they age, and these people tend to metabolic syndrome ie obesity, cholesterolemia, hypertension, vascular disease and thus diabetes- same as patients with hypothyroidism. So type 2 diabetes, hypothyroidism (sometimes preceded by hyperthyroidism) and aging go together- usually without demonstrable direct cause and effect.
This new McGill University metformin study does not claim any cause and effect. The link may be simply that metformin (which is simply a carbon-hydrogen -nitrogen molecule) improves all metabolic functions- antioxidant, nitric oxidant- including iodine/TRH/ TSH / thyroid/insulin hormone responses. .
it is among other things a prohormone regulator, improving common insulin resistance.
the definition of low TSH is arbitrary. If much below 1, it is suspicious of thyroid overactivity, excess thyroid hormones-
but rarely may reflect central ie pituitary failure to produce enough TRH/TSH and thus cause central hypothyroidism.
so TSH unless way outside the ‘normal’ range of 1 to 2 is a poor guide to health and disease, which is based on clinical state and the thyroid hormone and antibody levels.
Most aging people develop some degrees of thyroid underactivity, which generally responds to replacement of deficient selenium, iodine and sex hormones without addition of risky thyroid hormones- for which conventional blood levels are a poor guide.
so as in all patients whatever their state and treatment, thyroid function should like all other functions be considered periodically.
Metformin and low levels of thyroid-stimulating hormone in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus McGill University; Montréal, Quebec.
Background: Small cross-sectional studies have suggested that metformin, a first-line oral hypoglycemic agent, may lower thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) levels. Our objective was to determine whether the use of metformin monotherapy, when compared with sulfonylurea monotherapy, is associated with an increased risk of low TSH levels (< 0.4 mIU/L) in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.
Methods: Using the Clinical Practice Research Datalink, we identified patients who began receiving metformin or sulfonylurea monotherapy between Jan. 1, 1988, and Dec. 31, 2012. We assembled 2 subcohorts of patients with treated hypothyroidism or euthyroidism, and followed them until Mar. 31, 2013. We used Cox proportional hazards models to evaluate the association of low TSH levels with metformin monotherapy, compared with sulfonylurea monotherapy, in each subcohort.
Results: A total of 5689 patients with treated hypothyroidism and 59 937 euthyroid patients were included in the subcohorts. Among patients with treated hypothyroidism, 495 events of low TSH levels were observed during follow-up (incidence rate 119.7/1000 person-years). In the euthyroid group, 322 events of low TSH levels were observed (incidence rate 4.5/1000 person-years). Compared with sulfonylurea monotherapy, metformin monotherapy was associated with a 55% increased risk of low TSH levels in patients with treated hypothyroidism (incidence rate 79.5/1000 person-years v.125.2/1000 person-years, adjusted hazard ratio [HR] 1.55, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.09–2.20), with the highest risk in the 90–180 days after initiation (adjusted HR 2.30, 95% CI 1.00–5.29). No association was observed in euthyroid patients (adjusted HR 0.97, 95% CI 0.69–1.36).
Interpretation: In this longitudinal population-based study, metformin use was associated with an increased incidence of low TSH levels in patients with treated hypothyroidism, but not in euthyroid patients. The clinical consequences of this need further investigation.
1Department of Medical and Surgical Sciences, Endocrine and Metabolic Unit, University of Brescia; 2Unit of Internal Medicine and Endocrinology, Fondazione Salvatore Maugeri Istituto di Ricovero e Cura a Carattere Scientifico, Istituto Superiore Prevenzione e Sicurezza Lavoro Laboratory for Endocrine Disruptors, University of Pavia; 3Diabetic Unit, Spedali Civili di Brescia; Italy http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24776625
OBJECTIVE: Metformin treatment may induce a decrease/suppression in serum TSH levels, mimicking sub-clinical hyperthyroidism (SHT). The aim of the present study was to retrospectively evaluate changes in several electrocardiographic indices in euthyroid subjects with diabetes who, after starting metformin treatment, developed a low serum TSH as compared to patients with SHT resulting from an underlying thyroid disease or TSH suppressive treatment with L-thyroxine.
DESIGN: Heart rate, P wave duration, P wave dispersion, QTmax, QTmin and QT-dispersion were assessed in 23 patients with diabetes treated with metformin before and after 6 months of TSH-suppression and in 31 control patients with SHT.
RESULTS: No significant changes in electrocardiographic parameters were observed from baseline to the TSH-suppression measurement. A significant difference in P wave duration (102.9±7.4 vs. 92.1±5.8 ms, p<0.001), P wave dispersion (13.1±3.4 vs. 7.1±3.5 ms, p<0.001), QTmax (399±18 vs. 388±16 ms, p=0.024), QTmin (341±14 vs. 350±17 ms, p=0.038) and QT dispersion (49.9±9.6 vs. 30.9±9.2 ms, p<0.001) were observed between the control group with SHT and the group of diabetic patients with low serum levels of TSH.
CONCLUSIONS: Our results show that the TSH-suppressive effect observed in patients taking metformin is not associated with peripheral markers of thyroid hormone excess, at least at the cardiac level.
The linked bad nutritional -and lifestyle – choices – Salt-Stroke – smoking- – hypertension- obesity – diabetes – heart – kidney disease – are quoted by S.A. Stats 2010 from death certifications as rising to 24% of deaths after age 50 years, leading even infections at 20% as the commonest causes of seniors’ death in South Africa. Nonnatural causes ie violence account for only 5%, and cancers only about 4%.
update 22/3/2014: the March equinox:Vaccines and antivirals for preventing and treating influenza in healthy adults have very modest benefit. as the seasonal flu epidemic wanes in the northern hemisphere and approaches in the south, Authorities eg the US CDC continue relentlessly to promote mass flu vaccination. The South African Authority NICD recommends vaccination for anyone at high risk ie the elderly, infants or the sick, and carers. It also recommends antivirals eg Tamiflu for infection- but the BMJ recently publishes Study claiming Tamiflu saved lives was based on “flawed” analysis. a 2012 BMJ report by the samemedical journalist Zosia Kmietowicz notes Cochrane group rejects Roche’s offer of “advisory board” to discuss analysis of oseltamivir data. The 2011 Cochrane question remains unresolved: Does Oseltamivir Tamiflu Really Reduce Complications of Influenza?
But current Cochrane review of controlled trial publications to 2013 confirms “Vaccination of pregnant women is recommended internationally, while healthy adults are targeted in North America. The overall efficacy of inactivated vaccines in preventing confirmed influenza has a NNV of 71 (95% CI 64 to 80). . Live aerosol vaccines have an overall effectiveness corresponding to a NNV 46 (95% CI 29 to 115). Vaccination had a modest effect on time off work and had no effect on hospital admissions or complication rates. Inactivated vaccines caused local harms. CONCLUSIONS: Influenza vaccines have a very modest effect in reducing influenza symptoms and working days lost in the general population, including pregnant women. This review includes 90 studies, 24 of which (26.7%) were funded totally or partially by industry. Out of the 48 RCTs, 17 were industry-funded (35.4%).
A current German review Methodological quality of systematic reviews on influenza vaccination. Fourty-six systematic reviews fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Average methodological quality was high but variability was large (AMSTAR range: 0-11). Quality did not differ significantly according to vaccination target group. Cochrane reviews had higher methodological quality than non-Cochrane reviews (p=0.001). this was due to better study selection and data extraction, inclusion of unpublished studies, and better reporting of study characteristics (all p<0.05).
Abstract: The Semmelweis Reflex is about rejecting, deriding important new scientific discoveries or any serious sincere statement/action. I didnt fully appreciate the importance of that age-old human (mostly male) evil – mocking, martyrdom and murder by denialism- until I started this review of the current flu season threat and the role of supplements, and researched pioneer medical martyrs Drs Ignaz Semmelweis, Jack Drummond and Linus Pauling as paradigms of the scourge of modern vested-interest denialism and falsehoods, in medicine as much as politics, religion etc..
In fact, just as it is negligence to deny (as Semmelweis’s persecutors did) gloving up or properly washing hands between examining patients , or ensure that every adult has bloodpressure checked occasionally, it is clearly bad practice not to ensure that everyone – especially the young and old, takes a multinutrient plus extra vigorous dose vitamins D3 and C, plus some protective herbs- garlic, cinnamon, ginger, origanum; and fish oil and/or coconut oil if not both; and drastically cut down sweetness intake- especially fructose, sucrose and aspartame that now pervade all mass- produced food and drinks..
update 21 January 2014 : URGENT: THE 2014 FLU EPIDEMIC: “High H1N1 prevalence and mortality rates a concern: Type A (H1N1) influenza, the commonest flu virus in Canada this year, has a higher than anticipated mortality rate causing some to wonder if it’s virulence has increased. The worrisome factor “is the reported mortality rate,” says McGill University. As of Jan. 13, there were twenty confirmed deaths in Canada attributed to H1N1. “There are more deaths than what we expect for the regular H1N1 influenza, The strain this year could be more virulent . 96% of this year’s lab -confirmed influenza is H1N1. The virus is unusual in that it appears to affect younger people more than other strains of seasonal influenza. People 20 to 65 are being hit harder than usual, comprising 52% of flu cases. However, if you look at Europe, it’s still H3N2. Its an example of how you never know what the flu is going to do.” Alberta confirmed a death on Jan. 8, due to the virus H5N1, an avian virus. The deceased woman had recently returned from China. The mortality rate is higher with H5N1 than H1N1, “but fortunately, it’s not an easy virus to transmit”. So far, it seems that there are no cases of H5N1 transmission from human-to-human. It seems like the cases of H5N1 are few and far between and related to contact with birds in China. Patrick Janukavicius, Montréal, Quebec. In the same period, at least 20 children have reportedly died of the same strain in USA.
update 12 Jan 2014 THE ANTIFLU VACCINE DECEPTION: this review by Doc Joe Mercola stresses the disease-mongering myths, futility and risks in real life of flu vaccination and antiflu drugs eg Tamiflu ; and the overwhelming importance of natural immune boosters like Vit D3 & C, zinc, selenium, herbs, and hygienic prevention.
1 Jan 2014 CURRENT INFLUENZA STATUS: The 22 December solstice is the sun at its southern nadir seen from planet Earth, the onset respectively of real winter in the Northern hemisphere, and real summer in South Africa. Last year the Gregorian New Year heralded a fierce flu season in the northern hemisphere, and as usual feathered- and jet-propelled air travel brought the corresponding surge at the bottom of Africa.
And ominously, the Plagues & Pandemics (Howard Phillips 2012) of temperate climates that did so much historically to mould global demography not least the past 360 years in South Africa ( –STDS- pox, bubonic, polio, cholera, influenza, and now tuberculosis, Mad Cow disease, and HIV-AIDS). and especially antibiotic-resistant germs – are all on the increase despite (or because of) the increasingly futile $trillion armamentarium of 20th century designer vaccines and other antimicrobials..
Pneumonia is a welcome friend of the old, often rapidly relieving prolonged degenerative incapacity; such ending mostly by virus respiratory infection the gateway for the final bacterial infection.
Unlike the selflimited coronavirus common cold, breath-and hand-borne type A influenza, although usually mild in the well, is the commonest trigger in the frail. Many of us in our (grand)parents’ time lost relatives in the 1918/1919 “Spanish” H1N1 flu pandemic. But that was a unique global catastrophe because it killed mostly armies of healthy men, and then young working adults, apparently from cytokine storm, with 30 % of the workforce out for up to3 weeks if not 20% mortality. This is harrowingly described in the recently published Letters ( to his Mother) of Dr Arthur Conan Doyle, who lost – apart from his first wife to TB- more young relatives to the flu than to warfare.
The recent spring months here – apart from seasonal allergies -have seen declining viral respiratory illness in Cape Town, with the upper respiratory accent often shifted down to more gastritis-enteritis .
But New Year 2014 UK and northern North America forecast and are having a wet if not white New Year. ‘Flu rates are reported already high and rising in USA and Canada– mostly influenza A H1N1(swine-avian flu-the main 1918/19 killer); including already 6 deaths in USA and 3 in Canada.
but not in Europe, where the influenza (A > B) prevalence is still low and slightly more H3N2 than H1N1; in UK there has rather been been increase in RSV respiratory syncytial virus bronchitis in infants. . .
In fact by 28 December the exploding H1N1 deathtoll had hit 13 in Texas alone; especially in youths; with increasing Tamiflu resistance reported eg in Missisippi.. On 24 Dec the USA CDC mailed an emergency Advisory Notice to Clinicians: Early Reports of pH1N1-Associated Illnesses for the 2013-14 Influenza Season: From November through December 2013, CDC has received a number of reports of severe respiratory illness among young and middle-aged adults, many of whom were infected with influenza A pH1N1 pdm09 virus. Multiple pH1N1-associated hospitalizations, including many requiring intensive care unit (ICU) admission, and some fatalities have been reported. While it is not possible to predict which influenza viruses will predominate during the entire 2013-14 influenza season, pH1N1 has been the predominant circulating virus so far. For the 2013-14 season, if pH1N1 virus continues to circulate widely, illness that disproportionately affects young and middle-aged adults may occur.
Our regional South African Communicable Diseases Institute says , “H1N1 was documented here from April to September. But of 2566 pts with severe respiratory illness for January to October 2013 enrolled and tested at the five sentinel sites, only 6% were positive for influenza – mostly virus -H1N1. A pneumonia case in Cape Town was found to be due to Leigionnaire’s.
Now from China 147 human cases of avian influenza H7N9 have been confirmed including 48 deaths. – especially from poultry contact. No vaccine is currently available for avian influenza (H7N9) virus.
SAPA–AFP, 10 December 2013: Resistant flu virus keeps contagiousness. A mutant form of the H7N9 flu virus that is resistant to frontline drugs is just as contagious as its non-resistant counterpart, according to a study, published inthe journal Nature Communications. The virus has claimed dozens of lives since its outbreak in February. H7N9 is believed to have spread to humans from poultry, where it circulates naturally. The World Health Organisation (WHO) said on its website that “so far”, no evidence has emerged of “sustained” transmission of H7N9 among people.
And H7N1 and H7N7 has broken out in ostriches in South Africa,
So never mind the common cold coronaviruses and many other prevalent infections, increased caution is due against all common diseases at this season- both the USA H1N1 swine flu circulating the past few years, and now the Chinese H7N9 flu. . And the MERS-Co Virus Middle-East SARS-type outbreak has not gone away… 9 new cases reported the past week or two from the KSA alone .–the-deadly-middle-east-coronavirus-outbreak/
A current NEJM has a new report of a trial of quadrivalent Vaccine for Prevention of Mild and Moderate-to-Severe Influenza in Children by vaccine manufacturers GSK. The vaccine reduced severity by perhaps 70%- but at a cost of 1.5% serious adverse events, 50% more than the control group (hepatitis A vaccine only). The question remains- why risk flu vaccine’s ~1.5% serious adverse events when a single high dose of vitamin D3 300 000iu even just annually, and regular vitamin C with a multivite including zinc and selenium (at trivial cost ) largely cover one against a multitude of infections including AIDS and TB, and all degenerative health problems?
Is it coincidence, or divine evolution, that we have had available at low cost for about 60 year (never mind zinc, selenium, iron, iodine, vitamins A and vitamin E) two safe natural major antimicrobials in vigorous safe dose – vitamins C and D3? Medico-Pharma Big Business and governments have been heavily discrediting and ruthlessly suppressing these for their own profiteering vested interest even as plagues of HIV, TB, influenza rage, and Big Business determinedly profits hugely from killer smoking and alcohol sales despite increasing marketing restriction? South Africa- a major producer of alcohol and tobacco-smoke, and fossil-fuel-burning power stations, factories and motorvehicles – continues to lead the world with the highest road and respiratory death rates despite zealous attempts to reduce their lethal use.
Apart from optimal hygiene including avoiding livestock and poultry contact, smoking, alcoholism and pollution including swimming and sick buildings- air-conditioning- what can we take to minimize avoidable influenza ie immune depletion risk? apart from enough sunshine, exercise, rest, sleep, walking barefoot, not carrying a cellphone, and good mixed fresh organic diet? The clinical benefit of influenza vaccines is anything but proven, and the adverse risks appreciable.
Big Business and thus governments and the media profit from illness, so they keep publishing articles promoting Big Business: new antibiotics, vaccines and other synthetic drugs that do not prevent or cure but if anything perpetuate chronic degenerative obesity-diabetes-vascular-respiratory,- digestive-arthritic-cancer diseases; – and GMO-genetically modified preserved food and bottled drinks stuffed with slow poisons like refined cornstarch – fructose; salt; sucrose and cereals, soya, Roundup, antibiotics, preservatives, estrogenics, aspartame, and especially boiled and baked omega6 and sugars; instead of marine omega3 and MCT- medium chain triglyceride virgin coconut oil, and unrefined cereals eg oats, wholewheat bread etc..
Big Business and it’s cash-cow Disease Industry decries the natural healthgiving lowsugar Asian/ Mediterranean diet-organically pastured and grown livestock meat and dairy products, lightly cooked if not raw (oily) fish, fruit and nuts, coloured veggies, and plenty of oils in their natural plant form. These were the norm till food processing became Big Business in our lifetime post WW2, and the developed world was bluffed by Organized Medicine, the Food Barons and Big Pharma with the masterly fiction of Ancel Keyes, into jettisoning the natural longevity “sea and farm” diet of the east eg Japan, and West eg Mediterranean (fresh produce & cholesterol-rich dairyproducts, meat and fish) for the Diet Deception (Gary Taubes, Tim Noakes) and Bad Pharma ( James le Fanu, Ben Goldacre) of Ancel Keyes‘ low-fat high-refined cereals, margarine; and the cholesterol -busting and psychotropes/ painkillers /antidementia/antivascular/ antidiabetic disease Designer Drugs-for-all myths.
It spends multimillions promoting alcohol, smoking and ever-newer designer prescription drugs and vaccine, and disinformation on old well-proven cheap drugs like reserpine, amilozide, metformin, natural physiological human hormone replacement, natural antioxidants and anti-inflammatories , and decrying ineffective but deliberately lowdose and isolated or imbalanced vitamins and minerals .
The ATBC vits A+E trial (isolated highdose vits A and E) was one such farce in very high risk smokers in an icy climate. . Others have been the recent Norwegian trial using only up to 1000iu vit D supplement a day,
*a commercial multisupplement in the TACT post-heart attack trial – but the composition of the multisupplement included only deficiency-disease prevention microdoses of micronutrients including 100iu vitamin D3/d and equally negligible vitamin K- not pharmacological doses of key vitamins eg vits B, C, D & K2 that are well proven to greatly reduce infections and chronic degenerative diseases ;
* the Physicians’ Health Study randomized elderly professional men to placebo or combinations of vitamin C (500 mg synthetic ascorbic acid), vitamin E (400 IU of synthetic alpha-tocopherol), beta-carotene (50 mg Lurotin), and a multivitamin (Centrum Silver – this included anti-deficiency disease low dose of all common vits and minerals BUT only 400iu Vit D3), .
* The third study- on lowdose (traditional anti-deficiency disease) Vitamin and Mineral Supplements in the Primary Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease and Cancer was simply a literature review of 26 best-quality published trials of microdoses – not pharmacological safe macrodoses.
ie these three trials published in this Annals Internal Medicine issue to please Big Pharma advertisors to discredit supplements shared the usual problem of now well-known futile lowdose supplement doses at least of vitamins D3 and K, if not also vitamin C in the multigram dose scientifically promoted by the Drs Stone- Klenner-Pauling followers.
Sir Jack Cecil Drummond (1891-1952) was one of the world’s pioneer 20th century biochemists and nutritionists in UK, from 1916- 1952 discovering or defining and promoting under his world-famous biochemist professors Rosenheim, Halliburton and Funk the role especially of vits A, B, C and E. Thanks to his and Churchill’s forceful vision and foresight, he oversaw food supply and diet and thus keeping Britons healthy through and after WW2. He was so successful in promoting healthy cheap and unpatentable micronutrients and natural fresh food (in the face of the mushrooming megaprofit processed food and designer drug industry) that it speculatively led to his and his family’s 1952 assassination by competing interests in France –The Vitamin Murders, Fergusson 2007. .
MURDER BY DENIALISM: It is incontrovertible common cause that irrational and often jealous medical denialism costs endless lives:
* Scurvy prevention: Dr James Lind (who did the first ever recorded clinical trial) showed by 1750 that sailors’ scurvy on long sea voyages was preventable; but despite his pioneer discovery, the British navy cost the lives of thousands more seamen from scurvy when the Admirals neglected for 50years until the Napoleonic Wars to supply the fresh produce- eg limes – that rapidly cured and prevented the lethal scourge.
This despite the fact that another UK navy surgeon Dr John Woodall had already over 130 years earlier- by 1617 – published in UK The Surgeon’s Mate stating We have in our owne country here many excellent remedies generally knowne,- Scurvy-grasse, Horse-Reddish roots, Nasturtia Aquatica, Wormwood, Sorrell, and many other good meanes… to the cure of those at home…and Sea-men returned from farre who by the only natural disposition of the fresh aire and amendment of diet, nature herselfe in effect doth the Cure (of scurvy- for which antiscorbutic citrus had been known since antiquity) without other helps. the Lemmons, Limes, Tamarinds, Oranges, and other choice of good helps in the Indies… do farre exceed any that can be carried tither from England.
* Childbed fever prevention: in 1865 Dr Ignaz Semmelweis (1818 -’65) an AustroHungarian Roman Catholic ob-gyne in Vienna, was locked up, and beaten to death within weeks, because he showed – to the outrage of his peers- that handwashing with chlorinated lime eradicated the epidmic puerperal fever (three times that in the midwives’ ward) in the doctors’ labour wards; 70years before Thir Reich terrorists took charge, his senior colleagues reacted violently to his progressive promotion of (what was already more advanced British and French) hygiene and science, and his urging them to wash their hands after examining corpses before examining women in labour.. . Tragically for Semmelweis and new mothers in the Hapsburg empire then, Pasteur (b 1822) and Lister (b 1827) ‘s germ antiseptic discoveries were already being implemented further west, but had not yet been publicized.
*metformin after centuries of use as an antidiabetic herb galega officinalis, and its extraction as an antidiabetic in 1922, came into increasing use globally from the 1950s as the best treatment for type 2 diabetes, but the USA- to protect their own new patent antidiabetic drugs – ruthlessly suppressed its use there (like that of the natural salt lithium for manic depression) for 40years till the mid-1990s.
*AIDS and ART denialism: until 5 years ago in South Africa the overwhelming-majority “people’s” government (with the country’s vast resources), and its successive “health” ministers, cost the lives of an estimated 300 000 AIDS victims through sufferers – indigent state dependents- being denied antiretroviral ART drugs, (never mind still till now denied quality education and civil security, and thus adequate basic nutrition, and meaningful housing, jobs and thus hope.) Genocidal AIDS denialism about which the still-ruling (since 1994) leadership cadre did nothing until under intense international pressure and repeated Constitutional Court orders, combined with political rival factioneering in the ruling party, they ousted the denialist president and his denialist Disease Minister in 2008.
DENIALISM TARGETS IN NUTRITION:
VIGOROUS VITAMIN C ASCORBIC ACID PHARMACOTHERAPY : Much effort and Big Pharma money has been spent to denigrate the irrefutable science-based work (between their advocacy years shown) of Drs Irvine Stone (1934-1984), Fred Klenner(1948-74) and Linus Pauling (1970-1991) of antibiotic dose >50 to 1000 mg/kg/d pure vitamin C (not the antiscurvy 10mg/d) – as a universally needed essential in primates. We primats, like guineapigs and a few birds and fish species, are among the few that do not make their own since we lost the needed gene and thus enzyme in our evolution..
It took about 150 years after Lind’s publication for the antiscorbutic factor to be named as vitamin C by Dr Jack Drummond, another 10 years for it to be assayed and its structure proven- but despite the pioneering clinical work of Dr Fred Klenner in the 1950s proving the lifesaving benefit of tens of grams a day intravenously, it took another 20 years before Dr Linus Pauling took up Dr Irvine Stone’s conviction and put highdose vitamin C on the world Nobel prize map; just on Pubmed, vitamin C has >51 000 citations since 1921, and intravenously in 763 entries since 1946, with Dr Fred Klenner reporting it intravenously asmajor antibiotic in the Southern Medical journal from 1948..
The 2009 book Injectable Vitamin C and the Treatment of Viral and Other Diseases collection of medical journal papers from the 1930s to 2006 details the exhaustive scientific evidence proving the uniform benefit of even 1gm a day vit C both as an antimicrobial antiinflammatory antioxidant and immunomodulator against major crippling / lethal diseases from polio to tuberculosis, pneumonia, hepatitis, rabies, encephalitis, neuritis, poisoning, cancer, and pancreatitis;
and the persistent resistance of the FDA and other multinational Regulators to recognize (so as to protect their domestic patent drug manufacturers- Big Pharma and their politician and civil service lobbyists )- such uniquely safe and effective natural drug therapy. The final chapters of that 2009 book pose the crucial questions of overwhelming vested interest by the organized medical – hospital –pharmaceutical mega-industry and governments in not eradicating preventable disease, the Big Pharma banning of natural effective remedies- The Origin of the 42-Year Stonewall of Vitamin C, and Medical Resistance to Innovation,
The University of Oregon, the Riordan-Gonzalez group and more recently Hemila and Chaker‘ and Ullah et al’ s 2012 reviews have published much validating what Drs Goodall, Lind, Drummond, Stone, Klenner, Pauling and Cameron started.VIGOROUS VITAMIN D3 CHOLECALCIFEROLPHARMACOTHERAPY costing wholesale ~ <US$0.5/month for ~200 000iu /month in South Africa) reduces serious infection by perhaps 90% ie 9fold: . eg 80iu/kg/d – 500iu/d (15000u/month) for an infant, 50 000iu/wk or 200 000iu/mo for an adult; who if obese, may need two to three times the average dose, to achieve the (?) optimal 25OH vit D level of around 70ng/ml for health, higher for any acute or chronic chronic illness.
The modern prophets of vitamin D3 have been the three pre-WW2 doyens :
Prof Chris E Nordin (MB ChB 1950) working in bone physiology for 60 years now; 84 papers on vitamin D on Pubmed
Prof Walter Stumpf (1927-2012; MD 1952) the recently deceased professor at North Carolina University, neuropsychiatrist and radiobiologist in his 60year medical career with over 500 publications (76 on Vit D on Pubmed) including early discovering that vitamin D targets all systems and diseases; professor-walter-e-stumpf-ahead-of-his-time/ and https://healthspanlife.wordpress.com/tag/stumpf-dr-walter/
paralled by Prof Robert Heaney (MD 1951) at Creighton University, osteoporosis and nutrition authority with 119 vitamin D papers on Pubmed since 1982, over 400 publications to date;
succeeded by Prof Mike Holick (PhD 1971, MD 1976) with 391 publications on vitamin D since 1970 on Pubmed, who has done more than most to show that the maximum daily body production of vitamin D3 with plenty of sunlight is enough to prevent rickets and reduce all disease, but nowhere near the pharmacologically therapeutic 80iu/kg/d needed to maintain a vigorous all-disease protective bloodlevel of 60-100ng/ml.
and Dr John Cannell (MD 1976, registered psychiatrist from 1993, nutritionalist), a legendary whistleblower . who successively campaigned against #cigarette smoking; and uncovered: # the cigarette-smoking (Black Lung) compensationitis fraud of miners’ pneumoconiosis; #the fictitious inflated “above national average” school results (Lake Woebegone) that all states were inventing and reporting (as is still happening – mass government deception- in South Africa) ; then the
# recovered memory therapy (RMT) scandal – a form of psychotherapy in which patients recovered memories of abuse that they had no previous memory of. Such therapy resulted in false memory syndrome (FMS) of events that never occurred as well as an epidemic of multiple personality disorder (MPD), a rare disorder historically conceived of as being a hysterical disorder. Unfortunately, many MPD patients believed the psychiatrist conducting the RMT and went home to falsely accuse their parents and others of horrendous acts that never occurred. Cannell teamed up with two Harvard professors to write a peer reviewed paper on RMT, debunking the witch-hunt; then since the 1990s researching and promoting # vitamin D deficiency as major cause of much psychopathology including autism, and vigorous vitamin D therapy to correct multiple diseases, through the Vitamin D Council. He has (co)authored some 13 papers, and published a book. .
Now a major longterm German Cancer Research screening program has just publishd the 2002-2013 ESTHER study (Perna ea) of 10 000 citizens followed with serial 25OH vit D levels; to assess the association of apparently unsupplemented vit D levels with fatal and nonfatal CVD in the same study population. Follow-up data, including survival status, up to over 9 years. Comparing subjects with 25(OH)D levels below 12ng/ml and above 20ng/ml resulted in the lower vitamin D level cohort showing a higher hazard ratio of 1.27 (95% confidence interval = 1.05-1.54) for total CVD and 1.62 (1.07-2.48) for fatal CVD in a model adjusted for important potential confounders. No significant association for nonfatal CVD was observed. In dose-response analysis, we observed an increased cardiovascular risk at 25(OH)D levels below 30ng/ml. Results for CHD and stroke were comparable to the results obtained for the composite outcome CVD. Our results support evidence that low 25(OH)D levels are associated with moderately increased risk of CVD, BUT the observed association is much stronger for fatal than for nonfatal events.
But the benefit of sunlight in healing tuberculosis has been used for well over a century; while the Google antibiotic benefit of calciferol on Pubmed goes back at least to 1950.
In a prospective 16 mo trial in press from Australia, vit D3 even just 60 000iu/month (ie 2000iu/day) halved antibiotic use in seniors. (Tran, Neale ea 2014) Effect of vitamin D supplementation on antibiotic use: a randomized controlled trial.
Since the toxic dose of vitamin D long term reportedly may be as high as 600 000iu/day or a blood level well >150ng/l , imagine how much better the antimicrobial benefit of vitamin D3 at 80 to 100iu/kg/day or pro rata – even higher eg 10 000+iu/day for obese people who sequester more vit D in fat. .
Dr Robert F Cathcart wrote 30 to 20 years ago in Med Hypotheses. 1981 Vitamin C, titrating to bowel tolerance, anascorbemia, and acute induced scurvy The amount of oral ascorbic acid tolerated by a patient without producing diarrhea increase somewhat proportionately to the stress or toxicity of his disease. Bowel tolerance doses of ascorbic acid ameliorate the acute symptoms of many diseases. Lesser doses often have little effect on acute symptoms but assist the body in handling the stress of disease and may reduce the morbidity of the disease. However, if doses of ascorbate are not provided to satisfy this potential draw on the nutrient, first local tissues involved in the disease, then the blood, and then the body in general becomes deplete of ascorbate (Anascorbinemia and Acute Induced Scurvy). The patient is thereby put at risk for complications of metabolic processes known to be dependent upon ascorbate. 1984 Vitamin C in the treatment of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). evidence is that massive doses of ascorbate (50-200 grams per 24 hours) suppress the symptoms of the disease and can markedly reduce secondary infections. In combination with usual treatments for the secondary infections, large doses of ascorbate will often produce a clinical remission which shows every evidence of being prolonged if treatment is continued. .. despite continuing laboratory evidence of helper T-cell suppression. There may be a complete or partial destruction of the helper T-cells during an initial infection that does not necessitate a continuing toxicity from some source to maintain a permanent or prolonged helper T-cell suppression. However, it is possible ascorbate may prevent that destruction if used adequately during that prodrome period. Emphasis is put on the recognition and treatment of the frequent intestinal parasites. Food and chemical sensitivities occur frequently in the AID syndrome and may aggravate symptoms considered to be part of the AID syndrome. A topical C-paste has been found very effective in the treatment of herpes simplex and, to a lesser extent, in the treatment of some Kaposi’s lesions. Increasingly, clinical research on other methods of treating AIDS is being “contaminated” by patients taking ascorbate. 1991 A unique function for Vitamin C is as reducing substance, electron donor. When vitamin C donates its two high-energy electrons to scavenge free radicals, much of the resulting dehydroascorbate is re-reduced to vitamin C and therefore used repeatedly. Conventional wisdom is correct in that only small amounts of vitamin C are necessary for this function because of its repeated use. The point missed is that the limiting part in nonenzymatic free radical scavenging is the rate at which extra high-energy electrons are provided through NADH to re-reduce the vitamin C and other free radical scavengers. When ill, free radicals are formed at a rate faster than the high-energy electrons are made available. Doses of vitamin C as large as 1-10 g per 24 h do only limited good. However, when ascorbate is used in massive amounts, such as 30-200+ g per 24 h, these amounts directly provide the electrons necessary to quench the free radicals of almost any inflammation, and reduces NAD(P)H and therefore provide the high-energy electrons necessary to reduce the molecular oxygen used in the respiratory burst of phagocytes. In these functions, the ascorbate part is mostly wasted but the necessary high-energy electrons are provided in large amounts.
A recent review from Atlanta Kearns ea found 30 papers which aggregate to show that annual vitamin D3 dose (not D2) of optimally 300 000 to 500 000iu (wholesale cost ~R5 in South Africa) for deficient adults is best for avoiding poor patient compliance with minimal risk and major benefit.
THE INFERIORITY OF VITAMIN D2 SUPPLEMENT: It should be noted that the long-used Lennon’s Strong Calciferol datasheet (1974 updated 2004) does not indicate that this 50 000iu tablet labelled ‘calciferol’ is in fact vitamin D2 (ergocalciferol), not the fourfold more potent cholecalciferol D3 formed by sunlight in the skin. This is disclosed only on the Lennons website.. and in the South African Medicines Formulary. So ‘Strong Calciferol’ in South Africa (actually the D2 not D3 form of calciferol) is convenient but seriously deceptive mislabeling- much weaker than the ideal vitamin D3, and therefore its effect unpredictable compared to D3- in fact Dierkes ea Norway show that giving D2 may actually lower 25OH vit D level in the blood.. Sadly, despite this being reported to the local manufacturers and authorities, no correction of the clinically serious misperception created by the Strong Calciferol label and insert has been issued to health practitioners by the Medicines Control Council and the manufacturer Aspen-Lennons.
A recent 8yr study in Cape Town blacks Reciprocal seasonal variation in vitamin D status and tuberculosis notifications in South Africa Martineau, Nhamoyebonde ,Wilkinson ea confirmed that vitamin D deficiency (serum 25(OH)D <20 mg/L) is associated with susceptibility to tuberculosis (TB) in HIV-uninfected people in Cape Town as it is Europe. Vitamin D deficiency was present in 62.7% of 370 participants and was associated (OR ~5.4) with active TB in both HIV-uninfected and HIV-infected -(P < 0.001) people. Vitamin D status varied according to season: 25(OH)D concentration was double in summer-January- March compared to winter (23 vs 12ng/l; P < 0.001). Reciprocal seasonal variation in TB notifications was observed:lowest in autumn and highest in spring October through December (4,2 vs. 5; P < 0.001). Vitamin D deficiency is highly prevalent among black Africans in Cape Town and is associated with susceptibility to active TB both in the presence and absence of HIV infection.
Antimicrobial implications of vitamin D is detailed by Youssef, Peiris ea (USA Dermato-Endocrinol 2011) against all microorganisms – viruses, fungi, bacteria, protozoa (except perhaps leishmaniasis) as both profound prevention and therapy; in many cases without commercially invented marketed antimicrobials to which there is growing and deadly microbial resistance, let alone toxicity.. There is evidence that seasonal vitamin D deficiency status contributed greatly to the 1918/19 flu-pneumonia pandemic (Grant & Giovannucci 2009).
and finally, a month ago JAMA published from Effect of Micronutrient Supplementation on Disease Progression in Asymptomatic Antiretroviral-Naive HIV-Infected Adults in Botswana A Randomized Clinical Trial, that Micronutrient deficiencies occur early in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, and supplementation with micronutrients may be beneficial; however, its effectiveness has not been investigated early in HIV disease among adults who are antiretroviral therapy (ART) naive. 2 year supplementation with either daily vitamins BCo, C and E, selenium alone, or B,C,E with selenium vs placebo: study conducted in 878 patients infected with HIV subtype C with a CD4 cell count greater than 350/μL who were not receiving ART between 2005 and July 2009. Results participants receiving the combined supplement of vitamins plus selenium vs placebo had half the risk of reaching CD4 cell count 250/μL or less (adjusted hazard ratio [HR], 0.46); and secondary events of combined outcomes for disease progression or AIDS-related death, whichever occurred earlier [adjusted HR, 0.56); . There was no effect of supplementation on HIV viral load. Multivitamins alone and selenium supplementation alone were not statistically different from placebo for any end point. Reported adverse events were adjudicated unlikely related to the intervention, and there were no notable differences in incidence of HIV-related and health-related events among study groups.Conclusions and Relevance In ART-naive HIV-infected adults, 24-month supplementation with a single supplement containing vitamins BCo,C,E and selenium was safe and significantly reduced the risk of immune decline and morbidity. Micronutrient supplementation may be effective when started in the early stages of HIV disease.the universities of Miami, Harvard and Florida
THE PARADOX OF THE GLUCOSE- ASCORBIC ACID- CHOLESTEROL- STEROID CASCADE: Is it coincidence, or evolution, that the basic animal fast-energy circulating anabolic substrates are glucose, fatty acids and aminoacids? from which basic glucose C6H12O6 ( from ingested fructose C6H12O6 and sucrose C12H22O11, or fats or protein) the liver manufactures the basic cardinal steroid cholesterol C27H46O. Then from cholesterol we metabolize by adding or splitting off carbon molecules the crucial anabolic and regulating human hormones- 1. ouabain C29H44O12 the adrenal hormone made also in the hypothalamus and heart ; adrenal), 2. active calciferol C27H44O the strengthening and reproductive secosteroid; 3 the prime sex/ reproductive steroids pregnenolone C21H32o2, and thence progesterone C21H30O2, testosterone C19H28O2, DHEA C19H24O2. and thence estradiol C18H24O2. and 4 the prime adrenal mineralo/glucocorticoid steroids cortisol C21H30O5, aldosterone C21H28O5.
But we primates and a few other species lost the ability to synthetise on demand in quantities of grams a day the crucial vitamin C ascorbic acid C6H8O6 that is key to all the above. And vested interests in the Disease Industry want us to believe the biological nonsense heresy that we must ingest minimal unprocessed foods- cholesterol, fats (especially dairy, marine oil Omega3 and medium-chain triglyceride- coconut oil) and abundant vitamins C and D3, but eat abundant processed foods- refined plant Omega6, refined carbs- fructose, sucrose, fruit juice, cooldrinks, cereals, confections- which overload causes insulin resistance and thus lipidemia, obesity- metabolic syndrome -diabetes, cancer and cardiovascular disease.
The Semmelweis reflex: A current Wiki essay sums up the current genocidal problems of deliberate deceptions/denialism in Diet, Vitamins and causality – for ruthless profit and possibly cynical eugenics: “The Semmelweis effect is a metaphor for the reflex-like tendency to reject new evidence or new knowledge because it contradicts established norms, beliefs or paradigms.The term originated from the saga of Dr Ignaz Semmelweis, who discovered that childbed fever mortality rates reduced ten-fold when doctors washed their hands with a chlorine solution before examining patients. His hand-washing suggestions were rejected by his contemporaries, often for non-medical reasons. For instance, some doctors refused to believe that a gentleman’s hands could transmit disease (see Contemporary reaction to Ignaz Semmelweis). In his book The Game of Life, Timothy Leary provided the following polemical definition of the Semmelweis reflex: “Mob behavior found among primates and larval hominids on undeveloped planets, in which a discovery of important scientific fact is punished”. The expression has found way into philosophy and religious studies as “unmitigated Humean skepticism concerning causality“.”
Idealism, ethics may evolve; but the problem of human bigotry, self-interest and subjective ie personal bias do not diminish, they spread. It is classic that Semmelweis (1818-1865) the observant innovative Catholic medical scientist of his time (before microbes and antiseptics were known) was fatuously condemned not just by his jealous competing Vienna colleagues, but even by his progressive and reformist Copenhagen contemporary obgyn Prof Carl Levy (1808-1865)- who outlived him by only 4 months;
ironically at the same time that their Copenhagen contemporary Dr Soren Kierkegaard (1813-1855) was increasingly isolating himself on the lonely ethical journey against the convenience lazzez- faire tide, writing for ethical life and religion against the hypocrisy of the Church and becoming the father of both reformist theology and psychology. But unlike Semmelweis who was way ahead of the bioscience and humanity of his time, Kierkegaard stuck to and isolated himself in promoting the incompatible ie blind-faith-based religion – the dilemma of Abraham’s conviction (or delusion) to sacrifice his son- and ethical morality;
and closely followed by Rudolph Steiner (1861-1925) another more profound European thinker who bridged science, spirituality, progressive education, architecture, agriculture, natural medicine, nutrition, and social reform;
contrary to the rationalists of the 19th Century “Age of Enlightenment” and since, like British historian-philosopher -ethicist Winwood Reade (1838 – 1875) who published the enduring secularist’s bible The Martyrdom of Man (1872), of which Churchill wrote 25 years later “he was right but wrong to say it” on the book’s critique of the wrongs of war and religion, of mankind’s selfishness, corruption and destructiveness (by the greedy aggressive acquisitive minority) against the weak masses and the environment) that carries on worse in the 21st century than even the 20th century; and 150 years later bioscientist and philosopher Stephen Jay Gould (1941-2002) rationalized sadly the non-overlapping Magisteria of Science and Faith, objective “provable” science – which in fact is seldom immutably constant as is mathematics- and purely faith-based “unprovable” religious belief.
It was only a year ago that Richard Conniff published his column on Strange Behaviours, The Medical Martyrs. And the medical hero martyrs in this review- Semmelweis, Margaret Sanger, Drummond and Pauling – never made it onto his list.
But then nor did the modern medical freedom fighters Steve Biko, Agostinho Neto, Che Guevera. Jonas Savimbi, Neil Aggett, and the living spouse of Steve Biko, Dr Mamphele Ramphele….
Women of the Century apart (like Margaret Sanger, Marie Curie, Eleanor Roosevelt, Golda Meir, Indira Gandhi, Helen Keller, Benazir Bhutto, Mother Theresa, Aung San Suu Kyi -many of whom have been martyred), it is a philosophical debate whether among the men the medical martyr Semmelweis (1818-1865) ranks with his 19thC contemporaries- Lincoln (1809-1865), Kierkegaard(1813-1855), Pasteur (1822-95), Lister (1827-1912) ; and his successors (and 20th C leading achievers): Koch(1843-1910), Edison(1847-1931), Steiner (1861-1925), Gandhi(1869-1948), Weizmann(1874-1952), Churchill (1874-1965), Einstein (1875-1955), Jung (1875-1961), FD Roosevelt(1882-1945), JK Galbraith(1908-2006), Martin Luther King (1929-68), Pauling and Mandela as arguably giant enduring male leaders -innovators- teachers and achievers of the past two centuries.
Unlike eg Socrates, Hippocrates and Jesus of Nazareth, one of the five greatest polymath medical and ethical sages of all time Rabbi Dr Moses Maimonides (RamBam) avoided martyrdom by burying himself in practicing selfless medical service for sultan and peasants alike, and jurisprudence for his GreekoRoman based Islamic-Sephardic times and philosophy, like his guru predecessor Avicenna and his contemporary savant Averroes. .
CONCLUSION: Today it can be argued that the denial of effective phamacotherapeutic doses of especially vitamins C and D3, let alone supportive doses of balancing vits (A, B1,3,5,6,9 & 12, E and K2); the often-crucially deficient minerals (eg magnesium, sulphur, phosphate, iodine, zinc and selenium), and biologicals like human transdermal balanced HRT, coenzyme Q10, alphalipoic acid, milk thistle, cinnamon, fish oil, chondroglucosamine, DMSO, coconut oil, is a repetition of denialism of the germ theory, and of optimal physiological human micronutrition as well as macronutrition. .
– especially when patients are poor and thus malnourished, and plagued by diarrhoea and stress, TB, lipidemic vascular disease and cancer; and when antiretroviral ART- although life-saving- is even more diabetogenic and neurotoxic than untreated AIDs.
Even transdermal administration is better than nothing, perhaps better (for the frail and noncompliant eg oldies) than oral or injection eg of vitamins D3 & C and progesterone , metformin, (in addition to the usual magnesium chloride, vits A, BCo & E) may be beneficial whether by patch or cream for both healing, infection, calming, heart, circulation, infection, arthritis, osteoporosis, and neuritis, applied under coconut oil, codliver oil and DMSO as further analgesic, anti-inflammatory, memory and absorption enhancers.
REFERENCES: New reviews bear out the major benefits of micronutrient supplements selenium, zinc, silver, vits A, B, C, D, E; and DMSO, sutherlandia and aloe against HIV-AIDs. and co-infection;
Effect of micronutrient supplementation on disease progression in asymptomatic, antiretroviral-naive, HIV-infected adults in Botswana: a randomized clinical trial.Baum MK, Marlink R ea .JAMA. 2013 Nov 27;310(20):2154-63. .
In vitro effects of Sutherlandia frutescens water extracts on cell numbers, morphology, cell cycle progression and cell death in a tumorigenic and a non-tumorigenic epithelial breast cell line.Stander A, Joubert AM. ea, J Ethnopharmacol. 2009 Jul 6;124(1):45-60
below are some of the most recent 94 studies of vitamin D and human infectionin published just in 2013:
New insights on the role of vitamin D in the progression of renal damage: Kidney Blood Press Res. 2013;37:667-78. . Lucisano S, Santoro D.ea Many studies indicate relationship between hypovitaminosis D and survival, vascular calcification, bone mineral metabolism, immune, cardiovascular and endocrine. Vitamin D analogs reduces proteinuria, in particular through suppression of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) and exerts anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects. In particular vitamin D deficiency contribute to an inappropriately activated RAAS, as a mechanism for progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and/or cardiovascular disease. Human and experimental models of CKD showed that vitamin D may interact with B and T lymphocytes and influence the phenotype and function of the antigen presenting cells and dendritic cells, promoting properties that favor the induction of tolerogenic T regulators rather than T effectory. Interstitial fibrosis may be prevented through vitamin D supplementation. .
Should vitamin D supplementation be a regular part of asthma care? Gordon BR.Otolaryngol Clin North Am. 2014 Feb;47:97-108. .Vitamin D (vitD3) deficiency occurs frequently and has profound effects on health, especially asthma.
Vitamin D in asthma and future perspectives.Huang H, Zarogoulidis K. ea Drug Des Devel Ther. 2013 Sep 23;7:1003-13.
vitamin D deficiency associated with development of Acinetobacter baumannii infections in critically ill patients?; Türkoğlu M, Aygencel G et al.; Journal of Critical Care 28 (5), 735-40 (Oct 2013)
Association between vitamin D and hepatitis C virus infection: a meta-analysis. Villar LM, Romero-Gomez M. ea World J Gastroenterol. 2013 Sep 21;19(35):5917-24.
Association between prehospital vitamin D status and hospital-acquired bloodstream infections. Quraishi SA, Christopher KB. Ea, Am J Clin Nutr. 2013 Oct;98(4):952-9.
Human parvovirus B19 associated dilated cardiomyopathy. Jain P, Jain A, Khan DN, Kumar M. BMJ Case Rep. 2013 Aug 5;2013.
The role of vitamin D supplementation in the risk of developing pneumonia: three independent case-control studies. Remmelts HH, van de Garde EM ea .Thorax. 2013 Nov;68(11):990-6.
Correlation between serum vitamin D level and severity of community acquired pneumonia in young children Ren J, Sun B, Miao P, Feng X. Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke Za Zhi. 2013 Jul;15(7):519-21. Chinese. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23866270
Role of vitamins D, E and C in immunity and inflammation. Shaik-Dasthagirisaheb YB, Pandolfi F. J ea Biol Regul [Correlation between serum vitamin D level and severity of community acquired pneumonia in young children].Homeost Agents. 2013 Apr-Jun;27(2):291-5.
Pre-hospital vitamin D concentration, mortality, and bloodstream infection in a hospitalized patient population.Lange N, Christopher KB ea. Am J Med. 2013 Jul;126(7):640.e19-27.
Vitamin D deficiency in HIV infection: an underestimated and undertreated epidemic. Pinzone MR, Nunnari G. eA Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci. 2013 May;17(9):1218-32.
Vitamin D deficiency and sudden unexpected death in infancy and childhood: a cohort study.Cohen MC, Offiah A, Sprigg A, Al-Adnani M. Pediatr Dev Pathol. 2013 Jul-Aug;16(4):292-300.
Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 and the risk of pneumonia in an ageing general population.Aregbesola A, Tuomainen TP. ea J Epidemiol Community Health. 2013 ;67:533-6.
Treatment of pulmonary tuberculosis.Nunn A, Phillips PP, Abubakar I.Curr Opin Pulm Med. 2013 ;19(3):273-9.
Role of vitamin D in children with respiratory tract infection.Esposito S, Baggi E, Bianchini S, Marchisio P, Principi N. Int J Immunopathol Pharmacol. 2013 J26(1):1-13.
Tuberculosis incidence correlates with sunshine: an ecological 28-year time series study.Koh GC, Dedicoat M. PLoS One. 2013;8:e57752.
Improving outcomes in patients with psoriasis.Tidman MJ. Practitioner. 2013 ;257:27-30, 3.
vitamin C refs & infection:
Authors’ perspective: What is the optimum intake of vitamin C in humans? Frei B, Birlouez-Aragon I, Lykkesfeldt J. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr. 2012;52(9):815-29.
Micronutrients at the interface between inflammation and infection—ascorbic acid and calciferol. Parts 1 & 2: .Ströhle A, Wolters M, Hahn A. Inflamm Allergy Drug Targets. 2011 ;10:54-74- FULL TEXT IS ON LINE. .
Vitamin C for preventing and treating tetanus Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2008 Apr 16;(2):
Accompanying his 32year old partner (with like her mother BRCA+ breast cancer ), a young man this week complains sorrowfully of total erectile failure within three days every time he resumes fluoxetine for longstanding depression.
This may suit those patients who eschew sexuality, who knowingly choose chemical castration.. But the drug doesnt fix the causes of depression, merely palliates, often no better than a placebo, sometimes worse- compared to natural multibeneficial antidepressant supplements.
We already long live in a sea of estrogenic endocrine disruptors decimating many species including humans, like pesticides and PCBs, as so aptly described by Deborah Cadbury and Prof Nils Skakkebaek in classic books eg The Feminization of Nature and The Estrogen Effect.
The commonest prescription drugs (synthetics- antidepressants; major psychotropes; amoxicillin, oxidants ( betablockers eg atenolol; nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory NSAID (which block antidepressant effects –the Paul Greengard hypothesis 2011 Rocherfeller Inst NY); statins (cholesterol -steroid and insulin disruptors), and patent synthetic sex hormones- are now routine if not mandatory prescription worldwide due to ruthless relentless marketing pressure- disease-mongering for profit- even in children, and worse, in patients with cancers. The commonest cancers- breast, prostate, uterus- are estrogen-driven.
Such environmentally and biologically hostile designer patent drugs-for-profit are increasingly detectable in surface wastewater globally from human excretion, and thus drinking water supplies .
Endocrine disruption studies of antidepressants (eg fluoxetine Prozacs, mianserin Lantanon (its commercial analogue successor is now Remeron), Bupropion Wellbutrin Zyban; Venlafaxine Effexor and desimipramine) in surface water in Canada, USA, Mexico, Brazil and Belgium since 2006, and longer for antipsychotics, statins and NSAIDS, show estrogenic ie antiandrogenic risks for eg gender development and thus for breast/prostate cancer, for virility and fertility..
Doctors mostly blithely ignore that reproductive young females have by evolutionary reproductive necessity 100fold lower androgenic:estrogenic balance (eg 3:1) than men (eg 300:1), and are also far more prone than males both to estrogenic contraception prescription harm, and to common major depression and autoimmune disease like rheumatod arthritis and lupus, and thus to the double peril of mutiple estrogenic prescription.
Recently common NSAIDs eg ibrufen, diclofenac and mefanemic acid have been shown to be estrogenic in fish.
But such elective prescription of ( endocrine disruption) cancer- and infertility- promotors (antidepressants, NSAIDS, hormone contraception and HRT etc) , is hardly desirable or ethical at any age, especially when patients and their parents are not informed of the grave risks of these drugs with no proven longterm benefits (except for contraception).
new reviews gives more insight from a plastic surgeon into prevention, including the harms of xray mammography.
and into the gross dangerous overprescription of diabetogenic depressing hepato-nephro-myotoxic statins for all.
Popular painkillers eg opioids like oxycodin, fentanyl, tramadol on the other hand are similarly also powerful longacting hypoandrogenism–inducing drugs promoting estrogen dominance – which further complicates the misery and depression of those in chronic pain or depression, including from cancer, especially in women as well as men; who thus require monitoring of gonadal hormone levels and, if deficient, testosterone replacement. Aloisi ea Univ Siena 2012.
Aquat Toxicol. 2010 ;100:354-64 .Waterborne fluoxetine disrupts the reproductive axis in sexually mature male goldfish, Carassius auratus.nMennigen JA, Lado WE, Zamora JM, Duarte-Guterman P, Langlois VS, Metcalfe CD, Chang JP, Moon TW, Trudeau VL University of Ottawa, Ontario, Canada. Fluoxetine (FLX) is a pharmaceutical acting as a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor and is used to treat depression in humans. Fluoxetine and the major active metabolite norfluoxetine (NFLX) are released to aquatic systems via sewage-treatment effluents. They have been found to bioconcentrate in wild fish, raising concerns over potential endocrine disrupting effects. The objective of this study was to determine effects of waterborne FLX, including environmental concentrations, on the reproductive axis in sexually mature male goldfish. We initially cloned the goldfish serotonin transporter to investigate tissue and temporal expression of the serotonin transporter, the FLX target, in order to determine target tissues and sensitive exposure windows. Sexually mature male goldfish, which showed the highest levels of serotonin transporter expression in the neuroendocrine brain, were exposed to FLX at 0.54μg/L and 54μg/L in a 14-d exposure before receiving vehicle or sex pheromone stimulus consisting of either 4.3nM 17,20β-dihydroxy-4-pregnene-3-one (17,20P) or 3nM prostaglandin F₂(α) (PGF₂(α)). Reproductive endpoints assessed included gonadosomatic index, milt volume, and blood levels of the sex steroids testosterone and estradiol. Neuroendocrine function was investigated by measuring blood levels of luteinizing hormone, growth hormone, pituitary gene expression of luteinizing hormone, growth hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone and neuroendocrine brain expression of isotocin and vasotocin. To investigate changes at the gonadal level of the reproductive axis, testicular gene expression of the gonadotropin receptors, both the luteinizing hormone receptor and the follicle-stimulating hormone receptor, were measured as well as expression of the growth hormone receptor. To investigate potential impacts on spermatogenesis, testicular gene expression of the spermatogenesis marker vasa was measured and histological samples of testis were analyzed qualitatively. Estrogen indices were measured by expression and activity analysis of gonadal aromatase, as well as liver expression analysis of the estrogenic marker, esr1. After 14d, basal milt volume significantly decreased at 54μg/L FLX while pheromone-stimulated milt volume decreased at 0.54μg/L and 54μg/L FLX. Fluoxetine (54μg/L) inhibited both basal and pheromone-stimulated testosterone levels. Significant concentration-dependent reductions in follicle-stimulating hormone and isotocin expression were observed with FLX in the 17,20P- and PGF₂(α)-stimulated groups, respectively. Estradiol levels and expression of esr1 concentration-dependently increased with FLX. This study demonstrates that FLX disrupts reproductive physiology of male fish at environmentally relevant concentrations, and potential mechanisms are discussed.
Chemosphere. 2006:;65:1836-45.. Effects of the antidepressant mianserin in zebrafish: molecular markers of endocrine disruption.van der Ven K, Keil D, Moens LN, Hummelen PV, van Remortel P, Maras M, De Coen W. University of Antwerp, Belgium. Due to their environmental occurrence and intrinsic biological activity, human pharmaceuticals have received increasing attention from environmental and health agencies. Of particular, ecotoxicological concern are drugs that affect nervous- and endocrine-systems. Zebrafish genome-wide oligo arrays are used to collect mechanistic information on mianserin-induced changes in gene expression in zebrafish. Gene expression analysis in brain and gonad tissue clearly demonstrated the estrogenic activity of mianserin and its potency to disrupt normal endocrine (estrogenic) signaling, based on induction of molecular biomarkers of estrogenicity (e.g., vitellogenin1 and zona pellucida proteins). The possible mechanism underlying this estrogenic activity of mianserin is disturbance of the Hypothalamo-Pituitary-Gonadal (HPG) axis by direct interference of mianserin with the serotonergic and adrenergic systems in the brain of zebrafish. Taking into account the importance of the HPG-axis, and considering the concept of ‘critical window of exposure’, our results reveal the importance for more elaborate testing of endocrine disruptive effects of aquatic antidepressants at different lifestages and during longer exposure periods (e.g., life cycle studies). Although there is a low concordance between the gene expression results in this study and previous cDNA microarray hybridizations, the global mechanistic expression patterns are similar in both platforms. This argues in favor of pathway-driven analysis of gene expression results compared to gene-per-gene analysis.
University of Algarve, Portugal .buprofen (IBU) is one of the most sold over-the-counter non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID) and widely detected in the aquatic ecosystems. Nevertheless, the information regarding IBU effects in biota is still sparse. The goal of this study was to assess IBU potential effect as oxidative stress and endocrine disruption inducer in mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis applying a battery of biomarkers. Over two weeks of exposure to IBU (250 ngL(-1)), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione reductase (GR), phase II glutathione S-transferase (GST) activities and lipid peroxidation (LPO) levels were determined in the digestive gland and alkali-labile phosphates (ALP) were carried out in sex-differentiated mussels’ gonads. The results confirm a transitory induction of antioxidant activities responses concomitant to lipid peroxide formation outline and an increase of ALP levels over time, particularly in exposed males which may lead to mussels’ reproductive fitness impairment highlighting a higher impact of IBU as an endocrine disruptor than as a short-term reactive oxygen species (ROS)-generator.
BMC Med. 2013; 11:57.. The effect of statins on testosterone in men and women, a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Schooling CM, Au Yeung SL, Freeman G, Cowling BJ. CUNY School of Public Health York, .Statins are extensively used for cardiovascular disease prevention. Statins reduce mortality rates more than other lipid-modulating drugs, although evidence from randomized controlled trials also suggests that statins unexpectedly increase the risk of diabetes and improve immune function. Physiologically, statins would be expected to lower androgens because statins inhibit production of the substrate for the local synthesis of androgens and statins’ pleiotropic effects are somewhat similar to the physiological effects of lowering testosterone, so we hypothesized that statins lower testosterone. METHODS:A meta-analysis of placebo-controlled randomized trials of statins to test the a priori hypothesis that statins lower testosterone. We searched the PubMed, Medline and ISI Web of Science databases until the end of 2011, using ‘(Testosterone OR androgen) AND (CS-514 OR statin OR simvastatin OR atorvastatin OR fluvastatin OR lovastatin OR rosuvastatin OR pravastatin)’ restricted to randomized controlled trials in English, supplemented by a bibliographic search. We included studies with durations of 2+ weeks reporting changes in testosterone. Two reviewers independently searched, selected and assessed study quality. Two statisticians independently abstracted and analyzed data, using random or fixed effects models, as appropriate, with inverse variance weighting.RESULTS:Of the 29 studies identified 11 were eligible. In 5 homogenous trials of 501 men, mainly middle aged with hypercholesterolemia, statins lowered testosterone by -0.66 nmol/l (95% confidence interval (CI) -0.14 to -1.18). In 6 heterogeneous trials of 368 young women with polycystic ovary syndrome, statins lowered testosterone by -0.40 nmol/l (95% CI -0.05 to -0.75). Overall statins lowered testosterone by -0.44 nmol/l (95% CI -0.75 to -0.13). CONCLUSIONS: Statins may partially operate by lowering testosterone. Whether this is a detrimental side effect or mode of action warrants investigation given the potential implications for drug development and prevention of non-communicable chronic diseases. See commentary article here http://www.biomedcentral.com/1741-7015/11/58.
update 8 August 2013 the OregonUniversity Linus Pauling Institute website still promotes the numerous benefits of fishoil.
update 2 August 2013 the Topol- Rowen- Peskin rejection of need for fish oil EPA+DHA was not supported by the recently NEJM-published R&P 5 year trial in Italy, which compared modified ie patented ethylester marine essential fatty acids with olive oil.
This R&P trial was thus not a trial of fish oil (concentrate or otherwise), nor placebo-controlled, since olive oil is hardly a placebo- in the 13.4year Spanish EPIC trial published last year , olive oil dramatically reduced all-cause mortality by 1/4 and CVD mortality by 44%. The full 2013 NEJM R&P paper is inexcusably silent in omitting this cardinal fact that it was no ways placebo-controlled- placebo means an inert comparator.
the 2010 Nordic study ( Dyerberg ea Copenhagen University- who first reported in 1978 the association between marine omega3 PUFA and health in Eskimos) http://www.nordicnaturals.com/images/pdfs/tgstudy.pdf details the better bio-availability of natural ie triglyceride- bound fish oil- EPA+DHA compared to that in processed ethylester low-triglyceride omega3 products- as used in the R&P and GISSI trials of patented commercial designer products. .
2 June 2013 Its some 4 years since this healthsite started promoting marine oil for optimal development and health.
what say you to the latest hype about the predictable negative result of the Italian N-3 Cardiovascular Risk and Prevention trial R&P from the NEJM? ie that omega3 oil was no better than olive oil.
the major problem is that the R&P trial didnt use natural clean FISH OIL, nor in primary prevention.
Nowhere does it say it used fish oil- it says N-3 ie omega3, and in patients with multiple vascular disease. Nor does the original 2010 R&P plannng paper state that in fact it used a patent formula of chemically changed ethyl esters in tertiary prevention,
like the GISSI trial used apparently patent branded altered Om3 after heart attacks – it wasnt natural clean fish oil..
the GISSI abstracts 1999 and 2008 also dont mention fish oil.So it wasnt natural fish oil like I use and promote- clean codliver oil or clean om3 concentrate from clean factories in northern Europe and now even from Cape Town.. The R&P abstract paper cleverly doesnt mention the brand Omega3 name- but Pfizer funded the trial…Its the “top” journals likely up to their old tricks, publishing probable infomercials paid for in this case by Pfizer and mates, without making that clear.I cant see if these Italian trials used Lovza/Omacor or whatever Big Pharma chemically altered snakeoils.But looking at the extensive debate already around Dr Topol’s condemnation of real fishoil supplement, many commentators fell into the same trap- they didnt notice that R&P didnt use fish oil, but about 850mg/day ethyl esters of omega3.
Synthetic patent designer drugs dont do what the natural food/supplement/human biophysiologic product does.
Ethyl esters eg ethinylestradiol, and xenohormones eg Premarin, are dangerously different from estradiol. Look at the controversy, the danger in using altered natural products eg:
slowrelease niacin instead of natural niacin.
or neurontin/lyrica or benzos instead of natural GABA to bind to the GABA receptors. or anabolic steroids eg methyltestost instead of testosterone. or methylprogesterone Provera instead of progesterone. or margarine instead of butter !. or methanol – dangerously different from ethanol; or synthetic substitutes for natural digoxin…
or the Women’s Health Initiative- which through gross misrepresentation stopped many women from using beneficial physiological human HRT for 10 years, despite the bad design of the WHI that used long-proven risky xenohormones (premarin, provera) at dangerous older age, while in the first 6 years it enormously benefitted women in the first decade after menopause.. .It’s dis-ingenouos of Messrs Rowen, Topol and Peskin not to state this, that the R&P TRIAL DIDNT USE FISH OIL..
Dr Rowen and Mr Peskin are heavily promoting their own PEO Parent Essential Oil Brand of Omega6 plant oils. The evidence is that such combination is excellent benefit- but I see no science, no reason not to balance it with clean fish oil since this is now so deficient in general diet.But surely Prof Topol is doing patients a huge disservice in backing the R&P trial in dumping fish oil -when that trial didnt use fish oil, and makes no conclusion about fish ol?
I await the full copy of the R&P study – which the NEJM mysteriously doesnt make available on line as they usually do with any seriously important new study.. .No-one doubts that good plant oils , good mixed diet have benefit.there is no doubt that a few gms of fish oil a day have huge benefit.
Its the balance that matters- and the avoidance of smoking, sloth, adiposity, refined sugars and cooked animal fats that matters.so I see no reason to change from taking/ recommending daily a tsp (or 4) of codliver oil (ie about 800 – 3000mg EPA+DHA) ,
and olives/ mixed nut/plant/olive oils on salads/pasta etc ,
what say you?…